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Polish scholar who published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres that proposed a heliocentric model of the universe


scientist that thought planets moved due to gravity made the laws of motion and mechanics helped develop Calculus


scientist that supported a heliocentric model


German astronomer that supported the heliocentric idea; worked with Kepler


German astronomer/ mathematician that supported the heliocentric idea; thought that the planets moved in an ellipse


discoverer of the scientific method who wanted science to help with practical technologies


important to the scientific method discovery; was more philosophical; quoted "I think, therefore I am"


believes people are basic, moral, and reasonable; helped write Declaration of Independence; thinks that the best gov. had limited power (against absolutism) and the gov. has obligations to its people


French philosophe that thought that Parliament/ monarch check power in England; against absolutism; Constitution used his ideas


thought people were naturally good but were corrupted by the evils of society, the biggest evils being the unequal distribution of property


thought people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish, and need to be controlled by a strict gov.; believed in absolutism and a social contract


wanted people to make up their own mind about things; published the 28 Vol. Encyclopedia


French writer who exposed problems in society through his satiric works; wrote Candide


Challenged Rousseau about feminism; wanted equality (esp. in education) between men and women

Enlightened despots

absolute rulers who used their power for reform; examples include Frederick II of Prussia, Joseph II of Austria, and Catherine the Great of Russia


enlightened thinkers


the continuation of monarchs trying to gain power over the Church/ nobles and have absolute power over their citizens and their lives


believed in the greatest happiness for the greatest populatino of people; wanted laws passed to protect the poor and working class


- aimed at strengthening their national economics
- only a fixed amount of wealth, countries have to fight for it
- a country's colonies should not trade with other countries
- country should have its own source for raw material

Laissez-faire economics

new economic system; businesses operate with little/ no gov. interference; real wealth came from making the land more productive

Causes of the French Revolution

1. scarcity of food
2. need a new monarch
3. equality among the classes
4. get rid of corvee (old feudal laws)
5. equality in the Estates General
6. France is broke
7. Food/ supplies is too expensive
8. Philosophes want a rep. body
9. Royal Troops are a threat

Tennis Court Oath

the oath the National Assembly takes that they won't disban until they get a just Constitution

Fall of the Bastille

when the citizens of Paris panic and go to the Bastille to get ammunition to arm themselves against the troops and massacre jail guards and rip down the jail

The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens

framework of rights; what the laws will be based on to make all people equal

Reign of Terror

he radical movement led by Robespierre; got rid of religion; the Catholic Church was replaced by the Cult of Wisdom

Thermidorian Reaction

the Reaction to the Reign of Terror which ultimately ended it and installed the Directory


a 5 person executive branch that tried to rule France after the Reign of Terror

Rise and Fall of Napoleon

- Napoleon came to power by overthrowing the Directory and naming himself First Consul for life
- he left power the first time by being exiled to Elba, Italy
- he left power the second time by being exiled to St. Helena, Africa

Napoleon's Continental System

the system of economic warfare against Britain that closes off trade between Britain and France's allies and territory

The goals and accomplishments of the Congress of Vienna

restore stability and order in Europe; establish lasting peace by achieving a balance of power
1. redraw the map of Europe
2. protect the system of the monarchy
3. have constitutional monarchs, not absolute monarchs
4. protective/ defensive alliance to prevent what happened in France

The Napoleonic Code

codified laws; Enlightenment ideas that were a basis for Frenh laws

Toussaint L'Ouverture

lead the successful slave revolt against the French gov. in Haiti

Father Hildago

tarted the independence movements for the oppressed groups in New Spain (Mexico) but was later captured and executed

Reason/ origin for Latin American Independence movements

Originated with: Haiti
Reason: Inspired by French Rev.
- no allegiance to the French king
- Napoleon's economic policies hurt colonies' economies
- merchants want to trade freely/ have commercial regulations
-feared policies would benefit peninsulares
-feared resources would be taken away by foreign rulers

Juan Peron

president of Argentina; started Peronism; the voice of the working class democracy

Reasons for growth in urban life in Latin America during the late 19th century

1. moving to the coast to work at ports
2. more profits and a better economy for cash crops and better domestic production
3. no longer relied on the European markets

Reasons why the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain

1. resources- surplus of coal, iron, workers
2. new tech. - skilled mechanics/ new inventions
3. economic conditions- strong economy, capital available to be invested; more demand
4. political & social conditions- stable gov.; powerful navy; opportunity to have a better social standing; religious groups

Problems associated with industrialization

1. dangerous working conditions- many accidents, long hours, low pay
2. disease- cholera spread quickly, coal dust → black lung disease
3. poor living conditions- crowded tenements, no running water, unsanitary
4. poverty → crime
5. abuse of child labor

Impact of the invention of the steam engine on Europe

could transport goods all over Great Britain

Spinning jenny

invented by James Hargreaves

Steam engine

invented by Thomas Newcomen; improved by James Watt

Water Frame

invented by Richard Arkwright

Enclosure movement

removed farmers from renting land → increased unemployed people → they went to cities → provided for industrial workforce


pushed for women's rights


the prime minister of Prussia that moved against a liberal Parliament and helped unite Germany

Steps of German unification

1. Otto von Bismark is appointed as prime minister and moves against a liberal Parliament
2. Prussia and Austria defeat Denmark and occupy Schleswig-Holstein
3. Prussia defeats Austria and forms the North German Confederation; Prussia annexes Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, and Frankfurt; the Habsburgs are excluded from German affairs (Treaty of Prague)
4. Prussia defeats France in the Franco-Prussian War
5. Proclamation of the German Empire- focuses on monarchy and military

Italian unification

1. Gharibaldi and Mazzini try to unite Italian penin.
2. Cavour is appointed as prime minister of Italy
3. Italy joins into Crimean War
4. Italy allies with France and fights Austria
5. France betrays Italy
6. Garibaldi is winning in North
7. Northern and Southern Italy are united and more territories are added
8. Italy is united under a strong conservative monarchy

Aspects of nationalism in Europe in the 1800s

1. Russia: the military uniting to reform Russia

2. France: using the tricolor flag as their national flag; the liberal newspapers influencing the citizens of Paris to fight royal troops in opposition to Charles X's actions

3. Great Britain: Ireland becoming a voting block; Irish nationalists wanted more Irish control of the local gov.

Aspects of liberalism in Europe in the 1800s

1. Russia: Constantine was a liberal ruler, the Moscow regiment wanted a Constitution and a liberal leader

2. France: constitutional regime, July Monarchy, Louise Philipe was a liberal monarch, religious toleration, liberal parties gained power

3. Great Britain: was the exemplary liberal state of the world, had a representative body, Gladstone was a liberal prime minister, Catholic Emancipation allowed Catholics to hold public offices, Great Reform Act


a movement for a Jewish state in Palestine, which later led to the formation of Israel; combined a rejecting of the anti-Semitism of Europe with a desire to establish some of the ideals of both liberalism and socialism in a state outside Europe

British imperialism in India: relationship between the two countries

1. government - Britain controlled India mainly by way of viceroys living in India to control the gov.; was paternalistic
2. economics - used India as a source for raw materials (indigo) and leaves India in poverty
3. social issues - British viewed themselves as superior/ more intelligent than the Indians

Impacts of European imperialism on Africa

1. Berlin conference: allows for 14 European countries to divide Africa up
2. African economy is harmed
3. Natives are treated badly- basically enslaved

Reasons and outcomes of the Berlin Conference of 1884

1. Reasons: Many Euro countries wanting to establish colonies in Africa; avoids conflicts by setting boundaries
2. Outcomes: Tribal nationalism conflicts with borders

Sepoy Rebellion of 1857-1858

Indian revolt against the British oppression which ultimately results in Britain controlling India more strictly; it was not a nationalist revolution


90 year period during which India was governed by the British crown

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