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Biology Final--Chapter 18

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systematics
group and name
Aristotle
long, descriptive names
taxonomy
naming organisms with 2 words only, usually Latin of Greek
genus
capitalized
species
lower case
binomial nomenclature
two word naming system developed by Carolus Linnaeus in 18th century
Linnaeus recognized the need for..
universal names
taxon
each level
7 taxons
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus,species
Three domain system
bacteria, archaea, eukarya
bacteria
unicellular, prokaryotes, contains Eubacteria Kingdom, may or may not need O2, Prokarya: modern
Archaea
ancient bacteria, unicellular, prokaryotes, contains Archaeabacteria Kingdom, most do not need O2
Eukarya
all defined nuclues, contains Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
Old 5 Kingdoms
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Modern 6 Kingdoms
Eubacteria, Archaeabacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Eubacteria
cell walls contain peptidoglycen, contains domain bacteria
Archaeabacteria
very harsh environment, no nucleus, cell wall does not contain peptidoglycen, contains two domains: archaea and bacteria
4 Kingdoms of Eukaryotes
Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Protists
multicultural or unicellular, autotrophs (plantlike--phytoplankton) or hetero (animallike-- zooplankton), 60000 species, moist environment, Amoeba, Hydra, Paramecium
Fungi
mushroom, yeast, hetero, eat dead/decaying matter, cell wall containing chitin--protein in cell wall, eukaryotes, moist environment, worlds's decomposer, reproduce asexually
Plants
fern, mosses, trees, flowers, nonmobile, cell walls contain cellulose, auto--photosynthesis
Animal
fish bird, reptiles, mammals, no cell walls, hetero, great biodiversity,multicellular, mammals--hair/fur, nurse young, warm blooded
animal classes
mammals, reptiles, amphibians, aves (birds), fish, sea stars (not fish) , arthropods (insects, crabs, spiders), jellyfish, and mollusks
Homo sapien
human
evolutionary classification
grouping organisms based on their evolutionary history, how they evolved instead of how they look
phylogeny
plays a strong role in evolutioary classification, evolutionary relationship among organsims, use DNA
cladogram
diagram that show evolutionary relationships among a group of orgnaisms, using derived characters
derived characters
appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its old member
angiosperm
plants with flowers
genus
group os closely related species; first part of scientific name in binomial nomenclature
family
group or level of organization into which organisms are classifies
order
group of closely related families
class
group of closely related orders
phylum
group of closely related classes
kingdom
largest and most inclusive group of classification
clade
evolutionary branch of a cladogram that includes a single ancestor and all its descendants
monophyletic group
group that consists of a single ancestral species and all its descendants and excludes any organisms that are not descened from the common ancestor
domain
larger, more inclusive taxonomic category than a kingdom