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36 terms

41,42,43 Key concepts

Freeman Biology
Short term reversible responses to the environment
Embryonic tissue gives rise to four adult tissue types
1. Connective tissues
2. Nervous tissues
3. Muscle tissues
4. Epithelial tissues
Connective Tissue types
Loose, pads organs
dense, tendons
supporting, bone and cartiledge
fluid, surrounded by liquid ECM, blood, plasma
Nervous tissues
Neurons, nerve cells transmit electrical signals. Posesses Dendrites and long axons
Muscle tissues
1. Skeletal, attach to bone, voluntary, striated
2. Cardiac, walls of heart, involuntary, striated
3. Smooth, digestive and blood vessels, involuntary, unstriated
Epithelial tissue
skin, surface of organs, forms glands
Organs and Organ system
Contain two or more tissue used in specific tasks

Organ system
consists of groups of tissues and organs that work together to perform one or more functions
SA:V relationship
Bodies volume increases faster than it's SA as body increases

Large animals: Low metabolic rates, Small SA:V ratio
Small animals: High metabolic rates, High SA:V ratio, lose heat rapidly
Relatively constant physical and chem conditions inside body
Set Point
Target value for pH, tissue O2 concentration, nutrient availability
Negative feedback
Occurs when a condition in the body is not at set point. Responses to negative feedback return conditions to set point and result in homeostatisis
Endo, ecto, homeo, heterotherems
Endo - heats own body
Ecto - relies on outside env.
Homeo - keep body temp constant
Hetero - allow body temp to rise/fall depending on env conditions
CounterCurrent Heat Exchange
Work by placing warm and cool liquids next to each other and running in opposite directions
Movement of substances from regions of high concentrations to low
Same as diffusion, only through water
Osmolarity, osmoregulation
concentration of dissolved substances in a solution

Process by which animals control the concentration if water and salts in their bodies
Freshwater fish
Hypertonic to env, gain water lose salts(electrolytes)
Marine fish
HypOtonic to env, gain salts lose water
- Sharks rectal glands can excrete salts, based on a master gradient established by sodium potassium pump. This process occurs in many marine animals in some form where they can excrete NaCL
Epithelial cells and electrolytes
Epithelial cells selectively transport water and electrolytes are responsible for homeostatisis
Passive vs Active transport
Passive goes with gradient, active against and requires ATP needs NA+K+ pump
Malpighian Tubules
In terrestrial insects, responsible for excreting water soluable waste products and acheiving homeostatisis in respect to water and eectrolyte concentrations
Waxy layer on exoskeleton limits water loss
- Can form hypotonic urine that minimizes water loss
- Malpighian tubes of insects have a filtrate that reabsorbes water and returns it to hemolymph
Terristrial vertebrates, responsible for excreting water soluable waste products and acheiving homeostatisis in respect to water and eectrolyte concentrations
Nephrons in kidney
form a filtrate and reabsorb nutrients water etc
Loop of Henle
Solution containing urea and electrolytes flow through loop of Henle where changes in permability of cells to water and salt create a steep osmotic gradient
Increases water permability and reabsorbs water creating hypertonic urine
In animals maintaining water and electrolyte homeostatis
is ACTIVE, and carefully regulated.
- based on actions of membrane proteins
Incomplete vs complete disgestive tracts
Incomplete: single opening that doubles as location where food ingested and wastes eliminates

complete: two openings, start at mouth end at anus
Where chemical digestion often begins creating enzyme called saliva that hydrolyzes bonds
Digestion continues, highly acidic env.
Small intestine
Food passes from stomach into small intestine, where it processes and absorbs chemicals and bile digests fats, and other digestion occurs like carbs, nutrients, etc mixes with secreations from pancreas and liver

-Cells in small intestine absorb nutrients released and often driven by Na+K pump that favors flow of Na into cell
Pancreas and liver
secretions triggered by hormones chloecystokin and secretin (that are produced in small intestine)
Large intestine
Water reabsorption and feces form
Lack of homeostatis in respect to nutrients
Diabities occurs when glucose levels are too high
-type 1 = defect in insulin production
-type 2 = defect in insulin receptor