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Embryonic tissue gives rise to four adult tissue types
1. Connective tissues
2. Nervous tissues
3. Muscle tissues
4. Epithelial tissues
Connective Tissue types
Loose, pads organs
supporting, bone and cartiledge
fluid, surrounded by liquid ECM, blood, plasma
1. Skeletal, attach to bone, voluntary, striated
2. Cardiac, walls of heart, involuntary, striated
3. Smooth, digestive and blood vessels, involuntary, unstriated
Organs and Organ system
Contain two or more tissue used in specific tasks
consists of groups of tissues and organs that work together to perform one or more functions
Bodies volume increases faster than it's SA as body increases
Large animals: Low metabolic rates, Small SA:V ratio
Small animals: High metabolic rates, High SA:V ratio, lose heat rapidly
Occurs when a condition in the body is not at set point. Responses to negative feedback return conditions to set point and result in homeostatisis
Endo, ecto, homeo, heterotherems
Endo - heats own body
Ecto - relies on outside env.
Homeo - keep body temp constant
Hetero - allow body temp to rise/fall depending on env conditions
CounterCurrent Heat Exchange
Work by placing warm and cool liquids next to each other and running in opposite directions
concentration of dissolved substances in a solution
Process by which animals control the concentration if water and salts in their bodies
HypOtonic to env, gain salts lose water
- Sharks rectal glands can excrete salts, based on a master gradient established by sodium potassium pump. This process occurs in many marine animals in some form where they can excrete NaCL
Epithelial cells and electrolytes
Epithelial cells selectively transport water and electrolytes are responsible for homeostatisis
Passive vs Active transport
Passive goes with gradient, active against and requires ATP needs NA+K+ pump
In terrestrial insects, responsible for excreting water soluable waste products and acheiving homeostatisis in respect to water and eectrolyte concentrations
Waxy layer on exoskeleton limits water loss
- Can form hypotonic urine that minimizes water loss
- Malpighian tubes of insects have a filtrate that reabsorbes water and returns it to hemolymph
Terristrial vertebrates, responsible for excreting water soluable waste products and acheiving homeostatisis in respect to water and eectrolyte concentrations
Loop of Henle
Solution containing urea and electrolytes flow through loop of Henle where changes in permability of cells to water and salt create a steep osmotic gradient
In animals maintaining water and electrolyte homeostatis
is ACTIVE, and carefully regulated.
- based on actions of membrane proteins
Incomplete vs complete disgestive tracts
Incomplete: single opening that doubles as location where food ingested and wastes eliminates
complete: two openings, start at mouth end at anus
Food passes from stomach into small intestine, where it processes and absorbs chemicals and bile digests fats, and other digestion occurs like carbs, nutrients, etc mixes with secreations from pancreas and liver
-Cells in small intestine absorb nutrients released and often driven by Na+K pump that favors flow of Na into cell
Pancreas and liver
secretions triggered by hormones chloecystokin and secretin (that are produced in small intestine)
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