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Freeman Biology


Short term reversible responses to the environment

Embryonic tissue gives rise to four adult tissue types

1. Connective tissues
2. Nervous tissues
3. Muscle tissues
4. Epithelial tissues

Connective Tissue types

Loose, pads organs
dense, tendons
supporting, bone and cartiledge
fluid, surrounded by liquid ECM, blood, plasma

Nervous tissues

Neurons, nerve cells transmit electrical signals. Posesses Dendrites and long axons

Muscle tissues

1. Skeletal, attach to bone, voluntary, striated
2. Cardiac, walls of heart, involuntary, striated
3. Smooth, digestive and blood vessels, involuntary, unstriated

Epithelial tissue

skin, surface of organs, forms glands

Organs and Organ system

Contain two or more tissue used in specific tasks

Organ system
consists of groups of tissues and organs that work together to perform one or more functions

SA:V relationship

Bodies volume increases faster than it's SA as body increases

Large animals: Low metabolic rates, Small SA:V ratio
Small animals: High metabolic rates, High SA:V ratio, lose heat rapidly


Relatively constant physical and chem conditions inside body

Set Point

Target value for pH, tissue O2 concentration, nutrient availability

Negative feedback

Occurs when a condition in the body is not at set point. Responses to negative feedback return conditions to set point and result in homeostatisis

Endo, ecto, homeo, heterotherems

Endo - heats own body
Ecto - relies on outside env.
Homeo - keep body temp constant
Hetero - allow body temp to rise/fall depending on env conditions

CounterCurrent Heat Exchange

Work by placing warm and cool liquids next to each other and running in opposite directions




Movement of substances from regions of high concentrations to low


Same as diffusion, only through water

Osmolarity, osmoregulation

concentration of dissolved substances in a solution

Process by which animals control the concentration if water and salts in their bodies

Freshwater fish

Hypertonic to env, gain water lose salts(electrolytes)

Marine fish

HypOtonic to env, gain salts lose water
- Sharks rectal glands can excrete salts, based on a master gradient established by sodium potassium pump. This process occurs in many marine animals in some form where they can excrete NaCL

Epithelial cells and electrolytes

Epithelial cells selectively transport water and electrolytes are responsible for homeostatisis

Passive vs Active transport

Passive goes with gradient, active against and requires ATP needs NA+K+ pump

Malpighian Tubules

In terrestrial insects, responsible for excreting water soluable waste products and acheiving homeostatisis in respect to water and eectrolyte concentrations


Waxy layer on exoskeleton limits water loss
- Can form hypotonic urine that minimizes water loss
- Malpighian tubes of insects have a filtrate that reabsorbes water and returns it to hemolymph


Terristrial vertebrates, responsible for excreting water soluable waste products and acheiving homeostatisis in respect to water and eectrolyte concentrations

Nephrons in kidney

form a filtrate and reabsorb nutrients water etc

Loop of Henle

Solution containing urea and electrolytes flow through loop of Henle where changes in permability of cells to water and salt create a steep osmotic gradient


Increases water permability and reabsorbs water creating hypertonic urine

In animals maintaining water and electrolyte homeostatis

is ACTIVE, and carefully regulated.
- based on actions of membrane proteins



Incomplete vs complete disgestive tracts

Incomplete: single opening that doubles as location where food ingested and wastes eliminates

complete: two openings, start at mouth end at anus


Where chemical digestion often begins creating enzyme called saliva that hydrolyzes bonds


Digestion continues, highly acidic env.

Small intestine

Food passes from stomach into small intestine, where it processes and absorbs chemicals and bile digests fats, and other digestion occurs like carbs, nutrients, etc mixes with secreations from pancreas and liver

-Cells in small intestine absorb nutrients released and often driven by Na+K pump that favors flow of Na into cell

Pancreas and liver

secretions triggered by hormones chloecystokin and secretin (that are produced in small intestine)

Large intestine

Water reabsorption and feces form

Lack of homeostatis in respect to nutrients

Diabities occurs when glucose levels are too high
-type 1 = defect in insulin production
-type 2 = defect in insulin receptor

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