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72 terms

Trop Dis Terms

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infectivity
the ability of an agent to enter and multiply in the host is known as
infectious agents
any type of pathogens that can cause a disease
pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
pathogenicity
ability of a pathogen to overcome the defensive powers of a host and to induce disease
virulence
extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease)
incidence
rate of occurrence; particular occurrence; Ex. high incidence of infant mortality
prevalence
the number of existing cases of a disease
vector
organism that carries pathogens from person to person
reservoir
anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies
host
an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
zoonosis
a disease that can pass from animals to humans
endemic
a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
enzootic
The state where the disease is continuously present in a population of animals with no serious outbreaks
epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
epizootic
a disease spreading quickly among animals
pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
panzootic
Animal version of pandemic.
mechanical transmission
indirect transmission by a vector in which the infectious agent does not undergo physiologic changes inside the vector
biological transmission
The transmission of a pathogen from one host to another when the pathogen reproduces in the vector.
arthropod
insects
phenology
life cycle events triggered by environmental cues may be altered. trees "leaf out" earlier. spring arrives earlier in some places. flowers appearing out of season
transovarial transmission
when the infection is transmitted by stages from generation to generation of ticks
vector competence
ability of a vector to acquire a pathogen and to successfully transmit it to another susceptible host
sibling species
Reproductivly isolated species that are so similar morphologically that they are difficult or impossivle to distinguish using morphological characters
chronic
being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering adjective
acute
having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course
antigen
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies
antibody
any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
herd immunity
Immunity in most of a population
seroepidemiology
a population survey using serologic test to screen for exposure and immunity to an infectious disease
active immunity
a form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens
passive immunity
an immunity resulting from antibodies that are conveyed naturally through the placenta to a fetus or artificially by injection of a serum containing antibodies
attenuated
reduced in strength
subunit vaccine
Contain only certain proteins from the organism, can not cause dz, a lyme vaccine and FeLV are available
Vaccinia virus
Virus used to vaccinate against variola
surveillance
a watch kept over a person; careful, close, and disciplined observation
seropositive
animals with detectable antibodies
cold-chain
a system of refrigeration used for keeping and distributing vaccines at the correct temperature and in good condition
genetic control
Chemical barriers, physical barriers, & sterile males
chemoprophylaxis
primary prevention of infectious diseases by administering antimicrobial drugs to prevent infection
synergism
the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects
endotoxin
a toxin that is confined inside the microorganisms and is released only when the microorganisms are broken down or die
exotoxin
toxin that is secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding medium
procaryote
non membrane bound nucleus
subclinical
relating to the stage in the development of a disease before the symptoms are observed
epidemiological triad
agent, host, environment
symptom
any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease
antigenicity
a property of molecules to which an adaptive immune response can be generated
risk factor
anything that increases the chance of disease or injury
toxoid
a bacterial toxin that has been weakened until it is no longer toxic but is strong enough to induce the formation of antibodies and immunity to the specific disease caused by the toxin
passive immunization
injection of pre-formed abs into patient (can be from another species or maternal abs)
active immunization
exposing susceptible individuals to antigens associated with an infectious disease process that do not cause the disease but rather induce an immune response that protects against subsequent infection
intrinsic factor
•natural substance normally found present in the stomach essential to the metabolism of vitamin B 12 .
extrinsic factor
Body coverings
communicability
Able to be transmitted between people or species; contagious or catching; talkative or expansive; readily communicated
droplet nuclei
particles of dried secretions from the mouth and nose that may float in the air for a considerable amount of time over long distances
fomite
any inanimate object (as a towel or money or clothing or dishes or books or toys etc.) that can transmit infectious agents from one person to another
transovarial transmission
•The transmission of microorganisms between generations of hosts via the eggs
asymptomatic carrier
a person infected with a pathogenic microorganism but with no symptoms of the infection
incubatory carrier
An individual capable of transmitting an infectious agent to others during the incubation period of the disease.
convalescent carrier
An individual capable of transmitting an infectious agent to others during the incubation period of the disease
chronic carrier
person with a latent infection who sheds the infectious agent
morbidity
the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area
mortality
death rate
natural immunity
immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
acquired immunity
Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen
sequelae
long term or permanent damage to the host long after the disease leaves the host
incubation period
the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
attack rate
type of incidence rate defined as the proportion of persons exposedto an agent who develops the disease, usually for a limited time in a specific population
relative risk
incidence of disease (mortality) in exposed over incidence of disease in unexposed
prospective study
data collected in the future from groups sharing common factors
retrospective study
study that begins with the identification of persons with the disease and a suitable comparison (control) group of persons without the disease, then compares the diseased and nondiseased with reguard to the frequency of exposure to study factor