21 terms

Unit 3 Vocabulary List

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Renaissance
A "rebirth" of culture, based on classical Greek and Roman ideas in art, that began in Italy in the late Middle Ages and spread throughout Europe
Humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Line of Demarcation
line set by the Treaty of Tordesillas dividing the non-European world into two zones, one controlled by Spain and the other by Portugal
Aztecs
They created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. Conquered by Cortes.
Indulgences
Selling of the forgiveness of sins by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money.
Mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver, and by selling more goods than they bought.
Conquistadors
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Examples Cortez, Pizarro, Francisco.)
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Middle Passage
The voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
Encomienda
system where Spanish explorers used Native Americans as slaves here in America
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s where Africa sent slaves to the Americas, the Americas sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and gold to Africa
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Jesuits
A group of dedicated teachers and missionaries who founded schools and colleges, brought Europeans back to the Catholic Church, and spread Catholicism in Africa, Asia, and the Americas
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese royal that advanced early exploration by providing money to study navigation, develop better boats, and encourage voyages around the coast of Africa.
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Johannes Gutenberg
inventor who developed the first printing press with movable type in Europe
Martin Luther
A German monk who questioned the Catholic Church and started the Protestant Reformation by publishing his 95 theses.
King Henry VIII
Started the church of England because he wanted to divorce his wife and the Catholic Church wouldn't allow it.
John Wycliffe/ Jan Hus
Prior to the Reformation, these two priests challenged the authority of the Pope and were burned at the stake as punishment.
John Calvin
A Frenchman who established the Protestant faith Calvinism. He is best known for his theory of predestination.
Treaty of Tordesillas
agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th-century voyagers.