Terms in this set (42)
What is the most desirable complete diet for an infant during the first 6 months of life?
How long does the AAP recommend breast milk for?
What is colostrum?
Thick, yellow fluid produced the first few days of breast feeding that is very easy for the infant to digest. Has small volume but is rich in concentrated nutrients; low in fat, high in carbs, protein, and antibodies.
What are the benefits of colostrum?
Has a laxative effect and helps to pass baby's first stool, aids in excretion of excess billirubin, which helps prevent jaundice.
What does colostrum contain large amounts of that helps protect baby against infections of the throat, lungs, and intestines?
How big is the newborns stomach?
The size of a marble
When is breast milk produced?
3-4 days after birth
What contains 400 nutrients not found in any other infant nutrition?
What is in breast milk?
amino acids, vitamins, minerals, salts and sugars produced specifically for baby, water, fat, cholesterol, lactose, casein, millions of living cells (WBC's and antibodies).
What % of breast milk is water/fat?
What provides up to half of the calories in breast milk and what is its purpose?
fat, provides the baby with energy to grow
What does lactose promote in breast milk?
Growth of beneficial bacteria in baby's digestive system and enhances calcium absorption.
What does breast milk reduce the incidence of?
Ear infections, SIDS, Upper/Lower respiratory ailments, allergies, diabetes, intestinal disorders, JRA
What does breast milk add lifetime protection from?
Crohn's, ulcerative colitis, some lymphomas, Type I diabetes
Does breast milk increase increase IQ? How many points may formula feeding decrease IQ?
NO, it protects it!
The way the baby sucks aids in the development of what?
teeth, jaw, mouth, and speech development
What benefits does the mother get from breast feeding?
Helps the uterus contract after birth reducing risk of hemorrhage, reduces risk of breast and ovarian cancer, anemia, osteoporosis, RA related to mortality, assists mother to return to pre-prego weight, effective birth control if done properly, its free, breastfed babies are less sick decreasing healthcare costs.
What showing feeding behaviors (4) need to be present to breast feed (Breast feeding step one)?
Hand to mouth movements, tongue movements, head bobbing, and mouth opening.
How long in duration does breast feeding last for newborns after immediate skin to skin contact following birth?
8 weeks longer
What is included in breast feeding step 2?
Position infant so he has positional stability, best if chin is touching breast, nipple should be touching the philtrum, and the infant should gape widely.
What is included in breastfeeding step 3?
Baby grasps nipple and surrounding tissue with tongue (his tongue has to be able to extend over bottom gum line), he should then begin to suck.
What is the "let down" reflex?
Mother pushes her milk from breast to the infant and experiences a feeling of pins and needles in the breast.
Using what kind of pressure does the infant pull milk into his mouth?
What kind of tongue movement does the baby utilize to move the milk from front to back of mouth and press nipple up against his palate?
What is the best position to breast feed in during the first 1-2 weeks?
Cross cradle-place arm between baby's legs and hold back of head
What is considered a good first feed.
Within 30 minutes after birth
After the first feed what should the mother expect?
Relatively poor feedings the rest of the day (one sided, short, difficulty with latching) because baby is tired.
What should mother expect the second day of breast feeding?
Feeds improve in frequency and duration
From day four of breast feeding on what should be expected?
8-12 feeds/24 hours. The more babies and mothers are kept skin to skin, the more babies will feed. Intervals between feeds should be determined by baby.
What kind of stools should be expected in the first 5 days?
Meconium (black/dark and green)- first 2-3 days
Transitional (lighter color green/yellow)-3-4 days
Yellow seedy by day 5 (runny)
By day 4-atleast 3 "scoopable poops/day"
How frequent should baby void?
1 wet diaper first 24 hours
2 wet diapers second 24 hours
3 wet diapers third 24 hours
5-6 heavy, wet diapers after milk is in
What are the top 5 indicators that breast feeding is effective during the first week?
1. Physical assessment-alert, moist mucous membranes, wt loss <7% d/c
2. Breast feeding 8-12x in 24 hours
3. Swallowing is audible
4. Sucks with gliding jaw movement
5. Output after day 4: 5-6 wet diapers; 3 stools
Under what circumstances should supplements be given to breastfeeding infants?
LBW, Hypoglycemia, Dehydration, Inborn errors of metabolism
What are four contraindications to breastfeeding?
1. Bilateral Mastectomy
2. Use of certain medications or drugs i.e. cocaine, marijuana, sinequan, antabuse, many cancer drugs
3. Maternal infections: HIV
4. Adoption- although some adoptive mothers attempt
What are 4 categories of formula and when is there use most appropriate?
1. Milk-based: appropriate for full term newborns
2. Soy-based: appropriate for infants who are lactose intolerant; alternative for vegan families; no growth or development advantages have been shown over milk
3. Hydrolysate: less antigenic than milk or soy
4. Neocate: for infants who are allergic to other three types; extensively hydrolyzed amino formula
What can diluted formula lead to ?
can result in failure to grow, water intoxication, and hyponatremia
What can concentrating formula cause?
hypernatremia, dehydration, possible cerebral hemorrhage, gangrene of extremities, metabolic acidosis
When is concentrated formula recommended?
The first 2 months of life if not breastfeeding
What are some safety things you should do with formula?
Don't store scoop in powder
Watch for recalls
Refigerate, NEVER freeze
Make only amount that will be used in 24 hours
How long does it take for bacteria to grow in formula when left at room temp?
How much will a newborn drink of formula per feeding and how often are feedings?
15-30mls and feedings are q 3-4hours
When is gavage feeding indicated?
Eating takes more than 30 min, poor feedings, <32 weeks, <1500grams, unable to such and/or swallow, respiratory distress