Mesoamerica is a region that now includes the southern part of the United States and Mexico.
The Andes and the Amazon rain forest are examples of two landforms that can be found in South America.
Scientists believe that the first people to populate the Americas arrived by boat.
In Mesoamerica, the first farming settlements appeared around 3500 BC, when people learned to grow beans and squash.
The Olmec formed the first complex civilization in the Americas.
The first major civilization in South America was known as the Chavín culture. It was known for its woven textiles, carved stone monuments, and pottery.
sharp, glasslike volcanic rock often used as a trade good
way in which people in the lowlands got jade and obsidian and people in the highlands got cotton and chocolate
built a temple in Palenque to record his achievements as a ruler
characterized by great cities, trade, warfare, and the mystery of its disappearance
granted power and land, but bloody, destructive, and bad for crops
required sacrifices to please the gods
time period when Maya civilization spread to the Yucatán Peninsula, built great cities, and increased trade
Maya Classic Age
may have played a role in the collapse of the Maya civilization
Maya Life and Society
Which of the following groups of people was NOT a part of the Maya upper class? a) merchants b) warriors c) farmers d) priests
Which of the following were Maya lower classes required to do? a) pay their rulers with cloth, salt, and some of their crops b) help build temples, palaces, and other buildings c) serve in the army during times of war d) all of the above
all of the above
Which of the following statements does NOT describe Maya religion? a) Maya religion was polytheistic. b) The Maya believed their gods needed blood to prevent disaster. c) Maya religion only allowed women to be priests. d) The Maya believed their kings communicated with the gods.
Maya religion only allowed women to be priests.
Which of the following statements about Maya art and architecture is NOT true? a) The Maya built cities without using b) The best-known Maya art is mosaics found in temples and palaces. c) It took many workers to build Maya cities. d) Maya builders did not use wheeled vehicles.
The best-known Maya art is mosaics found in temples and palaces.
Which of the following statements concerning Maya achievements in science and math is true? a) Maya astronomers thought that a year was about 390 days long. b) The Maya were among the first people with a symbol for zero. c) The Maya created an agricultural calendar that described what to do in each of the six seasons. d) Maya mathematicians were the first to use geometry.
The Maya were among the first people with a symbol for zero.
What Maya text describes the legends and history of the civilization? a) the Popol Vuh b) the Torah c) the Upanishads d) the Qu'ran
the Popol Vuh
Mesoamerica contains all of the following geographic features except a) mountains b) rain forests c) deserts d) rivers
Which word best describes the Maya civilization during its Classic Age? a) peaceful b) religious c) united d) democratic
Despite their accomplishments, the Maya did NOT have a) a reliable calendar b) wheeled vehicles c) a writing system d) knowledge of mathematics
Which class of people held the lowest position in Maya society? a) priests b) farmers c) slaves d) merchants
In this chapter you read that Maya civilization during the Classic Age included independent city-states. What other civilization that you have studied was organized into city-states? a) ancient Greece b) ancient Persia c) Han China d) the Roman Empire
The Maya believed their rulers were related to the gods. What other ancient civilization believed the same thing? a) Jews b) Indians c) Phoenicians d) Egyptians
The Aztec Empire
The Aztecs hired themselves out as skilled fighters and eventually ruled a large empire in ____.
Conquered tribes were forced to make payments of gold, cotton, or food to the Aztecs. These payments, also called ____, were the basis of the Aztec economy.
The Aztecs grew rich and powerful through ____, tribute, and trade.
The Aztecs built causeways, aqueducts, and chinampas in order to turn ____, their capital city, into one of the world's largest cities.
Spanish explorers and ____, or soldiers, came to the Americas to explore new lands, search for gold, and spread their Catholic religion.
Four factors were vital in helping Hernán Cortés and his Spanish conquistadors destroy the Aztec Empire: alliances, weapons and horses, geography, and ____.
Aztec Life and Society
Aztec society was divided by social class and social roles.
The Aztec religion required sacrifices of both grain and live animals to keep the gods happy, but not human sacrifices.
Tax collectors and judges were a part of the Aztec noble class.
Aztec judges were responsible for passing down Aztec history and stories to keep their traditions alive.
Aztec Merchants and artisans were not a part of the noble class, but they could become rich an important by controlling trade or creating beautiful jewelry.
Aztecs made their greatest number of sacrifices to the war god Tlaloc.
The Aztec's large trading network and tribute system allowed them to learn skills from people all over the empire.
The Aztecs had a complex writing system and kept historical records in ancient books called chinampas.
The Inca Empire
early civilizations that built cities, developed crafts, and set the stage for the Inca civilization
Chavín and Chimu
greatly expanded the Inca Empire, rebuilt the capital at Cuzco, and established an official Inca religion
official language that helped to unify the Inca Empire
economic system that required each Inca household to pay the government in labor
won a civil war to become the Inca Empire's ruler but then lost the empire to Pizarro
conquered the Inca Empire with a group of 180 conquistadors
fell due to disease, civil war, and invaders with superior weapons
Inca Life and Society
Who made up the upper classes in Inca society? a) priests, government officials, and artisans b) king, priests, and government officials c) king, government officials, and artisans d) king, priests, and merchants
king, priests, and government officials
Which of the following statements does NOT describe the daily life of upper-class Incas? a) Upper-class sons and daughters went to school in Cuzco. b) Upper-class Incas did not have to pay the labor tax. c) Upper-class men primarily worked for the government. d) Upper-class women cooked, made clothes, and took care of children.
Upper-class sons and daughters went to school in Cuzco.
Which of the following statements does NOT describe the daily life of lower-class Incas? a) Lower-class Incas farmed on government lands and worked in mines. b) Lower-class Incas were required by law to wear plain clothes. c) Lower-class Incas were mostly slaves. d) Lower-class girls often went to school to learn weaving, cooking, and religion.
Lower-class Incas were mostly slaves.
Which of the following statements about the Inca religion is NOT true? a) The sun god was important to the Inca religion. b) The Incas did perform sacrifices, but llamas, cloth, and food were sacrificed more often than humans. c) The Incas believed certain mountaintops, rocks, and springs had magical powers. d) When the Incas conquered a new territory, they forced the people to renounce their gods and follow the official Inca religion.
When the Incas conquered a new territory, they forced the people to renounce their gods and follow the official Inca religion.
What Inca achievement is still in use today? a) their language b) their calendar c) their architecture in Cuzco d) their accounting system
their architecture in Cuzco
How have historians and archaeologists learned about the Inca? a) The Rosetta Stone allowed historians to decipher the Inca language and texts. b) The Dead Sea Scrolls provided great detail about early Inca life and the Inca religion. c) Inca literature, written after the Inca were conquered by the Spanish and learned their language, offers clues to Inca life and chronology. d) none of the above
Inca literature, written after the Inca were conquered by the Spanish and learned their language, offers clues to Inca life and chronology.
members of the camel family that Incas raised for wool
a type of ancient book
leader who expanded Inca Empire
raised paths across water or wet ground
led Spanish in defeat of Aztec Empire
Spanish soldiers who came to the Americas to explore new lands, search for gold, and spread their religion
Inca leader captured by the Spanish
official language of the Inca Empire
Aztec leader at the fall of the Aztec Empire
led Spanish in defeat of Inca Empire
The following factors all helped the Spanish to conquer the Aztecs and Incas except a) European diseases b) greater numbers of soldiers c) superior weapons d) existing problems within the empires
greater numbers of soldiers
Which statement best compares or contrasts agriculture in the Aztec and Inca empires? a) The Aztecs farmed on terraces and the Incas grew crops on chinampas. b) The Incas had to adapt to their environment while the Aztecs did not. c) Most people in both the Aztec and Inca empires were farmers. d) Both Aztecs and Incas raised llamas.
Most people in both the Aztec and Inca empires were farmers.
Aztec and Inca cultures differed in all of the following areas except a) in the worship of many different gods b) in the practice of slavery c) in trade within the empire d) in the practice of human sacrifice
in the worship of many different gods
Which people had a writing system in addition to a rich oral literature? a) both the Inca and the Aztec b) only the Inca c) only the Aztec d) neither the Inca nor the Aztec
only the Aztec
Aztec warriors were highly honored members of society. Their status was most like that of warriors in which society that you studied in Grade 6? a) Chinese b) Athenian c) Sumerian d) Spartan
In your study of ancient history, you learned the Egyptians believed their ruler was related to the sun god. This is most like the beliefs of the a) Incas b) Nazca c) Aztecs d) Maya