25 terms

PSY ch.1

1) Psychology
A) is a collection of theories that have yet to be tested out.
B) is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
C) is the study of supernatural phenomena.
D) consists solely of various forms of therapy.
E) is the study of common sense in individuals.
2) Which of the following is FALSE regarding the scientific method?
A) It is an orderly, systematic method that researchers follow when performing studies.
B) It allows researchers to systematically collect and then analyze data.
C) It allows researchers to draw conclusions from their studies.
D) It begins with identifying a topic or problem that needs researching.
E) Although it widely used, it is too subjective of a way to acquire knowledge.
3) According to your text, all of the following are considered goals of psychology EXCEPT
A) predicting behavior and mental processes.
B) describing behavior and mental processes.
C) influencing behavior and mental processes.
D) proving behavior and mental processes.
E) explaining behavior and mental processes.
4) As a psychologist, you are most interested in how to help individuals increase their quality of life. Based on this information, which type of research should you be involved in?
A) Basic research
B) Process research
C) Applied research
D) Generative research
E) Replicated research
5) Who is considered the "father" of psychology?
A) Charles Darwin
B) Wilhelm Wundt
C) Gustav Fechner
D) Sigmund Freud
E) Hermann von Helmholtz
6) All of the following are names associated with the movement for women and minorities in psychology EXCEPT
A) Francis Cecil Sumner.
B) Mary Whiton Calkins.
C) Carl Rogers.
D) Christine Ladd-Franklin.
E) Jorge Sanchez.
7) Which of the following is TRUE regarding behaviorism?
A) John Watson founded this school of thought.
B) It rests on the idea that behavior is learned.
C) It rests on the idea that our environment shapes our behavior.
D) It states that only observable and measurable behaviors should be studied.
E) All of the above are true regarding behaviorism.
8) _______ was an advocate for the idea of the unconscious.
A) B.F. Skinner
B) Sigmund Freud
C) Abraham Maslow
D) William James
E) David Buss
9) Who was a student of Freud and often referred to as a Neo-Freudian?
A) Abraham Maslow
B) Francis Cecil Sumner
C) John Watson
D) Carl Jung
E) Edward Titchener
10) All of the following are true regarding the humanistic theory EXCEPT
A) individuals are viewed as basically good.
B) individuals have the capability to make conscious, well thought out choices.
C) individuals are destined to achieve psychological harmony.
D) individuals have free will and thus can choose not to be victims of a poor childhood.
E) individuals who make good choices can move toward personal growth and psychological health.
11) In which of the following would a psychologist from the cognitive school of thought be interested?
A) Memory processing
B) Perception
C) Thinking
D) Decision making
E) All of the above
12) Which school of thought would be most concerned with behavior changes that promote survival in the face of environmental pressures?
A) Gestalt
B) Psychoanalytic
C) Sociocultural
D) Evolutionary
E) Humanistic
13) When psychologists are knowledgeable in all of the schools of thought and use various theories and techniques depending on the problem presented, they are considered to be of what psychological perspective?
A) Industrial/organizational psychology
B) Neuroscience
C) Eclectic
D) Cognitive psychology
E) Behavioral psychology
14) Which of the following are advantages to the use of naturalistic observation as a research method?
A) We can infer cause-effect relationships.
B) We can study behavior in naturally occurring environments.
C) We can easily influence the target behaviors.
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.
15) All of the following are considered descriptive research methods EXCEPT
A) case studies.
B) surveys.
C) laboratory observations.
D) experimental methods.
E) naturalistic observations.
16) In survey research, a ________ should be used to help to avoid a biased sample.
A) representative assignment technique
B) random sample
C) double-blind technique
D) matching protocol
E) blind technique
17) Which research method is used to set up a cause-effect relationship between two or more variables?
A) Experimental method
B) Surveys
C) Correlational method
D) Naturalistic observations
E) Laboratory observations
18) The variable that the experimenter changes, or manipulates, in an experimental method is referred to as the _______.
A) confounding variable
B) dependent variable
C) coexisting variable
D) independent variable
E) representative variable
19) The variable that is measured in the end of an experimental method is referred to as the _______.
A) confounding variable
B) dependent variable
C) coexisting variable
D) independent variable
E) representative variable
20) In the experimental method, participants who experience the independent variable are a part of the ________ group.
A) control
B) placebo
C) replication
D) confounding
E) experimental
21) In the experimental method, participants who do NOT experience the independent variable, or who may experience the placebo are referred to as the ________ group.
A) control
B) placebo
C) repeated measures
D) confounding
E) experimental
22) A confounding variable is
A) a factor that has no effect on the overall results of the study.
B) a benign condition that experimenters should not be too concerned with.
C) a variable that can creep up into the study and potentially throw off the results.
D) a factor that surfaces half way through the study and strengthens the results.
E) none of the above
23) Which of the following would likely have a positive correlation?
A) Overeating and weight
B) Time spent studying and failing grades
C) Use of sleeping pills and wakefulness
D) Depression and overall life satisfaction
E) Relaxation and stress
24) After two years, Pat's graduate research was finally complete. Since his research was on the topic of teenage males and their attitudes toward steroid use, he worried that his results did not really apply to college-age or otherwise adult males and their attitudes on steroid use. Pat was contemplating the ________ of his research and subsequent results.
A) replication
B) generalizability
C) independent variable
D) placebo effect
E) legality
25) All of the following would be practiced by a critical thinker EXCEPT
A) willingness to change one's prior beliefs about a topic.
B) withholding judgment until examining all issues of a topic.
C) only seeking out information that agrees with one's view on a topic.
D) thinking independently.

E) being able to do away with previous views on a subject.