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membrane potential becomes more negative,


membrane potential becomes less negative,

Graded (or proportional)

intensity of stimulation reaching thershold potential

Action Potential

reaching threshold potential results in a nerve impulse

Absolute Refractory Period

Time when threshold stimulus does not start another action potential

Relative Refractory Period

Time when stronger threshold stimulus can start another action potential

Synaptic transmission

where released neurotransmitters cross synaptic cleft and react with receptors in postynaptic neuron membrane

Open & Close Ion Channels

some neurotransmitters

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential

depolarizes membrane of postsynaptic neuron - action potential becomes more likely

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential

hyperpolarizes membrane of postsynaptic neuron - action potential becomes less likely


When EPSP and IPSP are added together

Greater AP

More EPSPs lead to greater probability of AP


act as neurotransmitters and are synthesized by the neurosn in brain & spinal chord

EX of neuropeptides

Enkephalins, Beta endorphin, Substance P

Neuronal Pools

Interneurons working together to perform common function (excite or inhibit)


Various sensory receptors - can allow for summation of impulses


Branching axon - stimulation of many neurons ultimately

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