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83 terms

Animal Nutrition KSU

Quiz 1, Test 1
STUDY
PLAY
profitability
based on environment, nutrition, genetics, and heard health. All four components need to be balanced to be optimal
consumer purchases
influenced by nutrition's affect on livestock product's characteristics
chicken
consumption has increased dramatically from 1909-2005 because it has been proactive in ways to increase consumption
leaner
chicken and turkey have become ____.
economics
whether or not people spend the money, make diets more ________.
50-80
feed costs represent _____ of total cost of production of livestock operations
decreasing
profits on agricultural products are
technology
to remain competitive, producers must specialize and get new ______. (it will play huge role in agriculture's future
nutrition
impacts 1) types of animal products we produce 2) cost of production
30,000
amount of milk dairy cattle produce per year in pounds
feed efficiency
pounds of feed required for a pound of gain, f/g
6
number of weeks for a broiler (chicken) to reach the market
2.6:1
feed efficiency of the hog market
250-300
poultry should produce ____ eggs per year
companion animals
35.9 billion dollars spent on _____ in 2005 vs 17 billion in 1994
nutrition
sum of all processes by which an organism takes in and assimilates food, including digestion and absorption for promoting growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
maintenance
portion of food nutrients which supports bodily functions which go on whether or not new tissues or products are being formed
growth
increase body size/weight (may/may not include an adjustment for composition)
hyperplasia
increase cell number in prenatal growth
hypertrophy
increase cell size in postnatal growth
absorption
passage of food or nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream and its distribution (villae in small intestines)
metabolism
sum of all biochemical processes that nutrients undergo to furnish energy and build new tissue
anabolism
build up
catabolism
break down
ADG
average daily gain
ADFI
average daily feed intake
F/G
feed efficency, can be improving or decreasing
water
85-45% body weight. Transports Nutrients
intracellular
within cells (muscle)
extracellular
fluids surrounding cells
carbohydrates
sugars, starches, and cellulose. photosynthesis by plants
glucose
fundamental unit of carbohydrates
polysaccharides
repeating glucose units (starches/sugars)
celllulose
most abundant carb and primary plant structural component. Ruminants CAN use it. Nonruminants CAN'T digest it
alpha glucose
glucose nonruminants can digest. hydroxyl group is down
beta glucose
glucose nonruminants can't digest. hydroxyl group is up
proteins
long chains of amino acids
nitrogen (NH2)
proteins contain ______
essential proteins
body cannot produce enough of them to meet daily requirements so must be consumed
lipids
fat, composed of triglyceride
triglycerides
3 fatty acids and glycerol
saturated
no double bonds in fatty acid
unsaturated
at least 1 double bond in fatty acid
insoluble
lipids are ____ in water
protein
lipids link with _____ so it can travel through the body better
14
fatty acids under ___ carbons are short
energy storage
primary function of fat
2.25
fat is ____ times as good as carbs at storing energy
vitamins and minerals
function as cofactors for enzymes and chemical reactions
fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
water soluble vitamins
B vitamins
macrominerals
Ca, P, Mg, K, salt. (high percent in diet)
microminerals
Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Mn, Cr (small percent in diet)
proximate analysis
determines content of major nutrients (dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract (fat), ash, nitrogen free extract)
six major nutrients in proximate analysis
1) dry matter 2) crude protein 3) crude fiber 4) ether extract (fat) 5) ash 6) nitrogen free extract
dry matter (DM)
sample dry weight divided by sample weight x 100
percent moisture
100-DM
assumptions of dry matter
1) wieght loss during drying is only water
2) no info on dry matter composition
3) most valuable in determining ingredient cost
dry matter intake
number of pounds consumed x %DM
highest percent of nutrients
%nutrient divided by DM= % of nutrient on DM basis
protein
Kjeldahl procedure. actually measure amount of nitrogen and uses it to estimate ______.
assumptions of protein
1) all nitrogen is them
2) they have a constant nitrogen percent
3) no info on availability of nitrogen (digestibility)
4) no info on quality of protein (necessary/not)
Leco Protein Analysis
ignite sample, faster, safer, easier than Kjeldahl, expensive
ether extract
crude fat, need to extract lipid from ingredient
assumptions of ether extract
1) all either soluble material is fat
2) no info on individual fatty acid (long, short, sat, unsat)
crude fiber
analysis is designed to simulate body's natural digestion process. weight of sample loss during burning of ash.
ash
determines mineral content of feedstuff. inorganic material.
assumptions of crude fiber
1) all material is fiber (some stuff could dissolve so would be underestimated
2) no indication on individual fiber
assumptions of ash
no indication of individual mineral content
nitrogen free extract (NFE)
calculations of sugar and starches left over from other analyses. 100- % off all other procedures.
problems with NFE
errors in other analyses show up in nitrogen free extract
limitations of proximate analysis
1) sampling (getting a representative sample not stored to long and not only from certain area of feed
2) no indication of toxic compounds
3) no indication of individual nutrients
4) no indication of nutrient availability (digestible)
permitted analytical variation (PAV)
allowance for accuracy of individual analytical procedures
acid detergent fiber/ neutral detergent fiber (Can Soest Fiber Analysis
tells how much of each fiber there is. distinguishes between cell wall vs. cell contents
forage quality
Van Soest Fiber Analysis's greatest application is in determing ____ (high producing dairy cattle)
NDF
neutral detergent fiber. cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin.
good indicator of voluntary feed intake (higher % eat less)
ADF
acid detergent fiber. cellulose, lignin. indicator of forage digestibility (higher %, less digestibility)
bomb calorimetry
measures energy content by the heat given off
gas chromatography
used to determine fatty acids
atomic absorption
measures individual minerals
high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)
measures amino acids
near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)
different mollecular bonds reflect and absorb dif wavelengths. needs lots of samples for calibration
problems with NIRS
1) accuracy varies
2) limited types of samples analyzed (good with corn and separate things, bad with a mixed diet)
3) fast