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Quiz 1, Test 1


based on environment, nutrition, genetics, and heard health. All four components need to be balanced to be optimal

consumer purchases

influenced by nutrition's affect on livestock product's characteristics


consumption has increased dramatically from 1909-2005 because it has been proactive in ways to increase consumption


chicken and turkey have become ____.


whether or not people spend the money, make diets more ________.


feed costs represent _____ of total cost of production of livestock operations


profits on agricultural products are


to remain competitive, producers must specialize and get new ______. (it will play huge role in agriculture's future


impacts 1) types of animal products we produce 2) cost of production


amount of milk dairy cattle produce per year in pounds

feed efficiency

pounds of feed required for a pound of gain, f/g


number of weeks for a broiler (chicken) to reach the market


feed efficiency of the hog market


poultry should produce ____ eggs per year

companion animals

35.9 billion dollars spent on _____ in 2005 vs 17 billion in 1994


sum of all processes by which an organism takes in and assimilates food, including digestion and absorption for promoting growth, maintenance, and reproduction.


portion of food nutrients which supports bodily functions which go on whether or not new tissues or products are being formed


increase body size/weight (may/may not include an adjustment for composition)


increase cell number in prenatal growth


increase cell size in postnatal growth


passage of food or nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream and its distribution (villae in small intestines)


sum of all biochemical processes that nutrients undergo to furnish energy and build new tissue


build up


break down


average daily gain


average daily feed intake


feed efficency, can be improving or decreasing


85-45% body weight. Transports Nutrients


within cells (muscle)


fluids surrounding cells


sugars, starches, and cellulose. photosynthesis by plants


fundamental unit of carbohydrates


repeating glucose units (starches/sugars)


most abundant carb and primary plant structural component. Ruminants CAN use it. Nonruminants CAN'T digest it

alpha glucose

glucose nonruminants can digest. hydroxyl group is down

beta glucose

glucose nonruminants can't digest. hydroxyl group is up


long chains of amino acids

nitrogen (NH2)

proteins contain ______

essential proteins

body cannot produce enough of them to meet daily requirements so must be consumed


fat, composed of triglyceride


3 fatty acids and glycerol


no double bonds in fatty acid


at least 1 double bond in fatty acid


lipids are ____ in water


lipids link with _____ so it can travel through the body better


fatty acids under ___ carbons are short

energy storage

primary function of fat


fat is ____ times as good as carbs at storing energy

vitamins and minerals

function as cofactors for enzymes and chemical reactions

fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

water soluble vitamins

B vitamins


Ca, P, Mg, K, salt. (high percent in diet)


Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Mn, Cr (small percent in diet)

proximate analysis

determines content of major nutrients (dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract (fat), ash, nitrogen free extract)

six major nutrients in proximate analysis

1) dry matter 2) crude protein 3) crude fiber 4) ether extract (fat) 5) ash 6) nitrogen free extract

dry matter (DM)

sample dry weight divided by sample weight x 100

percent moisture


assumptions of dry matter

1) wieght loss during drying is only water
2) no info on dry matter composition
3) most valuable in determining ingredient cost

dry matter intake

number of pounds consumed x %DM

highest percent of nutrients

%nutrient divided by DM= % of nutrient on DM basis


Kjeldahl procedure. actually measure amount of nitrogen and uses it to estimate ______.

assumptions of protein

1) all nitrogen is them
2) they have a constant nitrogen percent
3) no info on availability of nitrogen (digestibility)
4) no info on quality of protein (necessary/not)

Leco Protein Analysis

ignite sample, faster, safer, easier than Kjeldahl, expensive

ether extract

crude fat, need to extract lipid from ingredient

assumptions of ether extract

1) all either soluble material is fat
2) no info on individual fatty acid (long, short, sat, unsat)

crude fiber

analysis is designed to simulate body's natural digestion process. weight of sample loss during burning of ash.


determines mineral content of feedstuff. inorganic material.

assumptions of crude fiber

1) all material is fiber (some stuff could dissolve so would be underestimated
2) no indication on individual fiber

assumptions of ash

no indication of individual mineral content

nitrogen free extract (NFE)

calculations of sugar and starches left over from other analyses. 100- % off all other procedures.

problems with NFE

errors in other analyses show up in nitrogen free extract

limitations of proximate analysis

1) sampling (getting a representative sample not stored to long and not only from certain area of feed
2) no indication of toxic compounds
3) no indication of individual nutrients
4) no indication of nutrient availability (digestible)

permitted analytical variation (PAV)

allowance for accuracy of individual analytical procedures

acid detergent fiber/ neutral detergent fiber (Can Soest Fiber Analysis

tells how much of each fiber there is. distinguishes between cell wall vs. cell contents

forage quality

Van Soest Fiber Analysis's greatest application is in determing ____ (high producing dairy cattle)


neutral detergent fiber. cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin.
good indicator of voluntary feed intake (higher % eat less)


acid detergent fiber. cellulose, lignin. indicator of forage digestibility (higher %, less digestibility)

bomb calorimetry

measures energy content by the heat given off

gas chromatography

used to determine fatty acids

atomic absorption

measures individual minerals

high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

measures amino acids

near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

different mollecular bonds reflect and absorb dif wavelengths. needs lots of samples for calibration

problems with NIRS

1) accuracy varies
2) limited types of samples analyzed (good with corn and separate things, bad with a mixed diet)
3) fast

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