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process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function
thin flexible barrier that regulates what enters and exits the cell; composed of two layers of lipids
all body fluid other than that contained within cells; includes plasma and interstitial fluid
ribosome bound to the endoplasmic reticulum; makes proteins for export outside the cell
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
no attached ribosomes; three main functions: intracellular transport, lipid synthesis, drug and alcohol detoxification
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
organelles that contain the hydrogen peroxide produced by lipid metabolism; convert the toxic hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen using catalase
organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into ATP through cellular respiration
network of protein fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
tubes of protein; form the mitotic spindle during cell division, form cilia and flagella, and are used for intracellular structure and transport
short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell
property of the plasma membrane that allows it to control movement of substances into or out of the cell
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient
when the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than the concentration in the cytosol
when the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher than the concentration in the cytosol
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes from high to low concentration through protein channels
carrier mechanism that moves ions in opposite directions against their concentration gradients requiring energy
process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell by fusing with the cell membrane
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane to form a vesicle
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
last phase of mitosis, chromosome are in two new cells and nuclear membranes start to reform
tissue that binds, supports, and protects body structures, includes cartilage, tendons, fat, blood
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