21 terms

AP European History- The Age of Expansion: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires

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Prince Henry the Navigator
a member of the Portuguese royal family who hoped to acquire gold for Portugal and start a Crusade against the Muslims in Africa. He is thought to have founded a school of sailing and navigation in Sagres, Lisbon. His navigators began a series of explorations westward into the Atlantic and southward along the west coast of Africa in 1418.
Bartholomew Dias
Dias was an early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia. He managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488, now the Cape of Good Hope.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe (Portugal) to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route after defeating Arab fleets that patrolled the Indian Ocean.
Christopher Columbus
a Genoese sailor who, after gaining support from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, set sail to find an Atlantic route to the east. He believed he would fulfill medieval prophesies that spoke of converting the whole world to Christianity. He landed in the eastern Bahamas, which he thought was India, hence the name "Indies" and Indians, who proved very easy to enslave. Failed to find gold or spices and voyage deemed a failure.
Ferdinand Magellan
In 1519, he set out to circumnavigate the globe. Did not live to see end of voyage, but he proved that the territory where Columbus landed was not part of the Far East but rather an entirely unknown continent, which the Spanish planned to conquer.
Hernan Cortes
led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. conquistador responsible for defeat of the Aztec Empire. captured Tenochtitlan. He had heard rumors of a great kingdom in the interior so he began to stroke inland. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the city down in 1521. Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City.
Aztecs
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Montezuma
Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Soanush were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
Inca Empire of Peru
Carved out a large empire by conquering and instigating harsh rule over many other tribes. Conquered by the Spanish.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish soldier who set out for Peru with a small force of 200 men in 1531. He captured Inca emperor, Atahualpa, who then had his subjects raise vast amounts of gold for ransom. By 1533, he killed the emperor and secured hold on Inca territory.
hacienda
plantation owned by the Spanish settlers or the catholic Church in Spanish America, used to exploit both the agricultural and mineral riches of the land.
encomienda
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians, who continued to die at an incredible pace from both disease and overwork. Instead, they began to bring in African slaves.
New World
the name given by Europeans to the Americas, which were unknown in Europe before the voyages of Christopher Columbus
Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England's economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
Before the sea route...
Europeans could only get spices through the Venetians. Portuguese resolved to beat this powerful Venetian-Muslim monopoly by sailing directly to the source.
Exploration leads to...
mass conversions, a Christian coup and mercantile advantage, new allies against Western-Europe's arch-enemies, the Muslims
Amerigo Vespucci
italian cartographer that sailed under the Spanish flag repeated Columbus' initial attemp to sail west to Asia; he explored the coast of Africa thinking that it was Asia; he made his next voyage commissioned by Portugal and sailed along the coast of S America concluding that it could not be Asia; his discoveries were published and the new continent was named after him
Why could small Spaniard forces conquer huge empires in Mexico and Peru?
Advanced weapons and disease (smallpox, syphilis)
Church in Spanish America
promotes conversion to Christianity and development of European learning/civilization. Advocates welfare of native peoples, opposes their harsh conditions that military conquerors impose.
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
Black Legend
Promoted by Bartolome de Las Casas. Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good