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CNS Opiate Agonists/Antagonists & Stimulants

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pentazocine
talwin
pentazocine
partial opiate agonist
pentazocine
Notes: Similar to morphine; may cause withdrawal
pain
pentazocine is a partial opiate agonist used for
respiratory
opiates will cause changes to the ____ rate
opiates
use care with _____ in the young and old because we worry about them being able to metabolize any drug
intracranial pressure
opiates can increase this so use them with care in head injured patients
suppress respirations
watch opiate use during pregnancy, labor and delivery, because it might do this to an infant
respiratory reserve
use opiates with care in patients when this is decreased
CNS depressants
be careful of drug interactions with these type of drugs when using alcohol
anticholinergics
be careful of constipation when using these type of drugs
naloxone
narcan
naloxone
Use: Treatment of narcotic overdose; ↓ respiratory depression post-operatively or in overdose; opiate antagonist
naloxone
Notes: Will induce withdrawal syndrome—this may be life-threatening (not often, but may happen with pts. w seizure disorders or heart problems) These are used for supportive care.; opiate antagonist
naloxone
opiate antagonist
CNS stimulants
most of these re based on either amphetamines or caffeine
CNS stimulants
Mechanism of Action - ↑ release of NE in CNS resulting in ↑ alertness, ↓ fatigue, mood elevation; class of drugs
CNS stimulants
are all related to norepinephrine and elicit the fight or flight response; class of drugs
CNS stimulants
used in patients with Narcolepsy, ADD in children (may accelerate "slow-rate" behavior while suppressing "fast-rate" behavior).; class of drugs
CNS stimulants
users should be monitored for growth, high blood pressure, sleep disorders. Drug holidays should be strongly encouraged. Watch for abuse!; class of drugs
d-Amphetamine
dexedrine
d-Amphetamine
Adderall
d-Amphetamine
Notes: These may cause restlessness, tremor, headache, and dizziness.; CNS stimulant
methylphenidate
ritalin
methylphenidate
concerta
methylphenidate
metadate
methylphenidate
Notes: high BP, weight loss; do NOT use with MAOIs or in seizure disorders. Extended release (1 a day), usually decreases appetite. Wear off by the end of the day.; CNS stimulant
atomexitine
strattera
atomexitine
Notes: Less potential for abuse; not controlled. Raises BP, increases NE release. Good for adults and older kids; CNS stimulant
behavior modification
has been proven to be the best way to treat ADD
caffeine
is in lots of OTC preps to either ↑ alertness, constrict vessels (headache, cold preps) or to enhance water excretion.; CNS stimulant
caffeine
Examples include Goody's powder, Excedrin, and Aquaban.; CNS stimulant