Counseling Terms :S

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Most intelligence tests use a __________ or average score of 100.
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Terms in this set (226)
In a sociogram, an unselected individual is referred to as this.IsolateThis is the most frequently occurring score in a given distribution.ModeIf scores pile up at one end of the distribution or the other, it is said to be a ___________________________.Skewed DistributionA normal score with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.T-ScoreThese types of tests measure a person's capacity or potential in a given area.AptitudeA typing test is an example of a _________________ test.ProficiencyA set of unstructured or ambiguous tasks used to assess personality is called this.Projective Battery___________________ refers to the extent to which measurements correlate with a particular criterion when both are measured at the same time; whereas ________________________refers to the correlation between test scores on a particular criterion and later performance on the same criterion.Concurrent Validity Predictive ValidityAn ____________________________ is often used in career, or vocational, counseling.Interest InventoryThis refers to an informal observation of pupil behaviors recorded by teachers in a clear and factual manner.Anecdotal ReportThe tendency for an individual's score to move closer to the mean on subsequent testing is known as this:Regression EffectThe degree to which scores in one distribution explain scores in another distribution is referred to as _________________________.Shared VarianceThe _______________________, a common rating error, causes the rater to evaluate a subject based on an overall impression, rather than on the particular trait in question.Halo EffectA _____________________ of 4.2 means the student is doing as well as the average child in the second month of grade 4.Grade Placement ScoreThis is an ordinal measure that tells the point on the distribution before which a given percentive of individuals fall.PercentilesASVABAptitudeCATAchievementGREAptitudeGRE Advanced TestsAchievementKaufman Asessment Battery for ChildrenIntelligenceKuderInterestLocus of Control ScalesPersonalityManchover Draw a Person TestPersonalityMetropolitanAchievementMiller Analogies TestAptitudeMMPIPersonalityMyers-BriggsPersonalityNBCC ExamAchievementNMHCC ExamAchievementOccupational Interest SurveyInterestOtis-LennonIntelligenceRorschach Inkblot TestPersonalitySchool and College Ability TestAptitudeSelf Directed SearchInterestStanford-BinetIntelligenceStrong-CampbellInterestTeacher-Made Unit TestAchievementTests of General AbilityIntelligenceThematic Apperception TestPersonalityWAISIntelligenceDesensitization Imagination Phase:Desensitization Imagination Phase: Using the SUDS (Subjective Units of Distress Scale) scale, clients rate anxiety from 0 to 100 being the most anxiety. ".Invevo means"Real Life" where the client tries to experience real life situation on the hierarchy which is popular for "Behavioral Sex Therapy".Assertiveness Training:client learns what assertive vs. non-assertive vs. aggressive behavior in interpersonal relationshipsAversive Conditioning:the client is exposed to an unpleasant stimulus while engaging in the targeted behavior, the goal being to create an aversion to unpleasant stimulus.Flooding or Implosive Therapy:Deliberate Exposure with response prevention for 40-60 minutesAnalytic Psychology (JungWe all have collective unconscious mind filled with archetypes which are universal symbols with universal meaning for all people.Jung--Personal Unconscious of repressed materialsSocial mask hiding feelingsHuman psyche consist of personaAndrogynous:male & female, characteristics — Animus and AnimaPersonality is androgynous meaning there are two sides to every personality:Anima—the feminine side Animus—the masculine side personalityThe personality continuously changes.He is the father of individuation which is the driving force for every individual to reach their full potential.Alferd Adler--Emphasizes social factorsStriving for superiority are the major sources of motivation in humans-not sexual being, inferiority complex, birth order, Lifestyle is a self fulling prophesy based on how we think of ourselvesJean Piaget Cognitive Development (Epistemology)nature of knowledge Assimilation learns from existing themeAccommodation incorporates new informationOccur Simultaneously goaling to balance the twoSensory motor stage:0-2 years—sucks, grabs due to reflex, object permanence stagePreoperational Stage:: 2-7 years—ego centric, symbolic schemaConcrete Operational Stage: 7-12 manipulates objects mentally, counts and conservesFormal Operational Stages:12 years and above—abstract and hypothetical reasoning, experimentation of problem solving--mathKolberg's moral stages (preconventional): Obedience and Punishment OrientationCoventional: Good Interpersonal RelationshipsPost Conventional:Social Contract and Individual RightsHeinz dilemma:Should Heinz have broken into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife after failing to obtain it legally?Erick Rrikson (Maturationist--genetically determinedTrust vs. Mistrust; Autonomy vs. shame and doubt; Initiative vs. guilt; Industry vs. inferiority; Identity vs. roles confusion; intimacy vx. isolation; Generativity vs. stagnation; Intergrity vs.despairFreud wrote "Group Psychology"Psychosexual stagesOralSucking, trends future relationshipsAnalToilet training, anal retentive characterPhallic:Interest in genitallia, Oedipus complex--involves the child's unconscious desire to posses the opposite sexed parent and to eliminate the same sexed one.LatencySexual urges are repressedGentitaliaPuberty, interested in othersLibidosexual energyErosPreservationThanatosDeath wishFreud wrote: Interpretation of dreams, He is the father of dream analysisDreams have two parts: manifest content and latent contentManifest contentWhich is the dream itselfLatent contentWhich is the dream interpretation/unconscious symbol.Dream interpretation is the processIn which the process in which laten is derived from manifest content. Drean work is making the latent known.Freud's Ego Defense MechanismsKeeping the ego from being overwhelmed by distorting reality unconsciouslyRepressiontraumatic memory blockSuppressiondenying realityReaction formationreplace an anxiety producing impulse with it's opposite--thief becomes police officerRegressionreverting back to a secure age and place in timeRationalization:give excuse for negative behavior to be more socially exceptedProjectionBlaming someone elseDisplacementtaking feelings out on a safer place—mad at boss—yell at wifeSublimationunacceptable urge channeled into an expectable manner "boxing bag"Freud's Therapy is to give insight to unconscious motivationREsistance is when one is unwilling to deal with it.Transference iswhen patient reacts to therapist as they would resound to someone in the pastCounter Transference iswhen the therapist reacts on unresolved issuesHarry HarlowMaternal stimulations Monkey study FAP—fixed action patternConrad Lorenz--ImprintingImprinting—now or never learn it when child Young ducks—first thing they see they call momJohn BowlbyBirth order and bondingPoor bonding leadsto psychopathologyFirst bornExcel, scholarly, conservativeOnly childdo not feel close to their peer but high self esteemHarry Stack SullivanDynamic Cultural school AnalysisProtactic thinkingis non separate from environmentParataxic thingdog barks then it rain then dog caused the rainSyntaxic thinkingis logical thinkingMargaret MahlerMother infant studyCymbreosis2 months to age 3 separation, differentiation, individuation in order to develop own ID called the psychological birthRapprochementAltrnate feeling of closeness and the need for independenceF.H. Allport--Social FacilitationsWhich means the presents of others improve individual performance, competition improves behavior.Bogardus Social Distance scaleRate an individual in regard to their feelings about ethnic groupsBogardus-Cross Cultural Counselingwith different social/cultural backgroundBogardus--Therapeutic Surrenderis to build rapport with a person from different cultures and trust themBogardus--Culture isvalues, beliefs, attitudes, and customs of a group setting them apartFrank Parsons--Father of Vocational GuidanceFirst cross culture counselorParson-Universal culturephysical and psychological needs are the same around the world.Parsons- Ecological culturepeople at equator can't dress like north pole people--location impacts behavior.Leon Festinger--Cognitive dissonance theorystress that is felt when person has conflicting beliefsFestinger--Conformityis a person who conform to people or new ideasElizabeth Kubler FossStages of griefKubler Ross Counseling helps reach acceptancedenial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptanceCross Cultural Counseling--Emic viewpointWhen counsleor knows the clients cultureEtic view pointSees people as more the same and treats them alikeAutoplastic dilemmaChanges self to deal with environmentAloplastictries to change the envionment50% of divorces report hostilityCross culture counselingAsians are hard core sciencesbut rarely social sciences and are less likely to secure therapy than any other groupSocial psychology is theStudy of how though, emotions and behaviors are influenced by the presence of othersIntro to Social Psych: William McDougall which is the father of Hormic Psychology"Individuals are driven by innate, inherited tendencies"Alfred Adler; Carl JungAlfred Adler was the father of individual psychology and Carl Gustav Jung founded analytic psychologyFreud 's structural therory & Eric Berne's TAFreud's id, ego, and superego; Berne's Child, the Adult, and the Parent roughtly correspondParent; superegoIn Berne's TA the Parent is the conscience or ego state whereas in Freud's theory the superego is concerned with moral behaviorSuccessful resolution of the Oedipus complexLeads to the development of the superego, which is accomplished by identification with the aggressor, the parent of the same sexTransferencePsychoanalytic concept which implies that the client displaces emotion felt toward a parent onto the analyst, cousnselor, or therapistThanatos; ErosEros is the Greek god of the love of life. To the Freudians this means self preservation. Thanatos is the Greek word for death- Freudian writings use the word to describe a death wish or what is sometimes called the death instinct.Specialist who study deathThanatologistsFulcrum analogy or seesawCounselors often use this analogy to explain the relationship of the id, ego, and superego.Systematic desensitizationIs a form of behavior therapy based on Pavlov's classical conditioningLatent content or manifest contentManifest is the surface meaning and Latent content is the hidden meaning.Little AlbertA famous case associated with the work of John Broadus Watson created a conditioned or learned response to be afraid of furry objectsIn contrast psychoanalysis, psychodynamic counseling or therapyutilizes fewer session per week, does not utilize the couch, is performed face to faceCatharsis and /or abreactionTalking about difficulties in order to purge emotions and feeling is curative process known as ?accurate empathyMeans that the counselor can truly understand what the client is feeling or experiencingReflection of contentis accomplished when the counselor restates the client's verbalization in such a manner that the client becomes more aware of his or her emotions.Irrational thinking at point BEllis (REBT) feelt that this is at the core of emotional distubanceBibliotherapy is a form ofHomeworkRefuting irrational ideals and replacing them with rational onesTherapeutic congnitive restructuring really refers to :Pictures in your mind are to Glasser's Choice TheoryAre to Glasser's as internal verbalizations are to REBTCognitive DisputatuonThe act of changeing the client's mode of thinking is sometimes called:A client says I lost my job and it's the most terrible thing in the world.This client is engaging n awfulizing and terriblizing, also known as catastrophizing.MusturbationsShoulds and oughts are ----------------- according to EllisEpictretusA philosopher most closely related to REBT would beInternal verbalizationsIn REBT the client is taught to change cognitions also known as:Positive addictionMust be a noncompetitive activity which can be performed alone for about one hour each day Glasser stressed which will instill hopeLike that of a friend who asks what is wrongThe relationship that the therapist has with the client in reality therapySchools Without FailureGlasser 's theory was poopularized in educational circles after he wrote:The eighth step in Glasser reality therapy process:Asserts that the client and counselor be persistent and never give upWhen the past is discussed in reality theory the focus is onSuccessful behaviorsGlasser's position on mental illness isDiagnostic labels give clients permission to act sick or irresponsible.Ontology ( do not confuse with oncolgy)A Metaphysical study of life experience is called:PhenomenologyRefers to the client internal personal experience of events, and ontology which is the philosophy of being and existingFree choice, decision, and willExistential counselors emphasize the clients:Logotherapists often use the term noogenic neurosis, which is flustration of the will to meaning in life so he can :Write his or her own life story by making meaningful choicesExistentialists speak of there worlds:Umwelt= physical; Eigenwelt= Identity; Miwelt=relationshipSystematic desenitizationConsists of these orderly steps, relaxation training, construction of anxiety hierarchy, desensitization in imagination, and in vivo desensitizationSensate focusis a form of behavioral sex therapy developed by William H. Masters and Viginia JohnsonConditioned reflex therapyCreated by Andrew Salter, set the stage for modern assertiveness training. Some call Salter, who hated the psychoanalytic model, the father of behavior therapyTest anxietyYerkes-Dodson Law states it is not necessary or desirable to eliminate all anxiety in order to score well on comprehensive examsPremack principlean efficient reinforcer is what the client himself or herself likes to do. Thus, in this procedure a lower-probability behavior is reinforced by a higher probalitiy behavior.Premack principleLPB (low-probability behavior) and HPB (high -probability behavior) asserts that any HPB can be used as a reinforcr for any LPBA directiveA client who is having panic attacks is told to practice relaxing his jaw muscle for theree minutes per dayCounseling paradigmA treatment modelCharting the occurrence of the behavior prior to any therapeutic interventionA behavioristic counselor decides upon aversive conditioning as the treatment of choice for a gentleman who wishes to give up smoking. The counselor begins by taking a baseline. How is this accomplished?Instrumental conditioningIn general, behavior modification strategies are based heavily on :Behavior therapyIs based on classical conditioningChainingA sequence of behaviors in which one response renders a cue that the next response is to occur. Mostly just a series of operants joined together by reinforcersExperimental neurosisToo many Conditioned stimus added so as the animal or person get confused and exhibits nerosisExtinctionA child is ignored when acting out so as to stop the behavior-warning-usually gets worse before getting betterNo conditioningPutting the first unconditioned stimus before the conditioned stimulus (the meat and then the bell)Positive punishment/Negative punishmentSomething is added after behavior decreases(positive); Something is removed following an unwanted behavior and the response decreases.Reality therapyExcuses are not accepted, the unconscious is avoided, and therapy is concerned primarily with the here-and-nowCognitive restructuringusually refers to Donald Meichenbaum's approach, which is similar to REBTBibliotherapy is a form ofHomeworkTransferenceKeep in mind that Ellis, Glasser and the behaviorists put little stock in the notion of transferenceOnly man thinks in declarations ( internal sentences that can cause or ward off emotional discord).Ellis most likely would not be impressed with a behaviorist's new animal study related to the psychotherapeutic process since:Beck's contension of depressionis the result of a cognitive triad of negative beliefs regarding oneself, one's future, and one's expereinceTA is a cognitive model of therapy which asserts that healthy communication transactionOccurs where vectors of communication run parallelContractingA TA counselor and a strict behaviorist are both in the same case conference to staff a client. Which technique would they most likely agree on when formulating a plan of action?A life script is actuallya life drama or plotEric Berne is to TA asFritz Perls is to GestaltCarkhuff and GazdaEmpathy and counselor effectiveness scales reflect the work of:Acronym NLP is an abbreviation ofBandler and Grinder's Neurolinguistic programming.Gestalt meansa form, figure, or configuration unified as a whole. It can also imply that the intergrated whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Perls suggested_____________Which must be peeled away to reach emotional stability.Five layers of neurosis. He likened the process of therapy to that of peeling an onion.Perls five layersThe person has a phonely layer, a phobic layer( fear that others will reject his or her uniqueness), an impasse layer ( the person feels stuck) the implosive layer( willingness to expose the true self) and the explosive layer( person has relief due to authenticity.Gestalt--Unfinished businessWhen an unexpressed feeling of resentment, rage, guilt, anxiety, or other emotion interferes with present situations and causes difficulties.The term GestaltPerls borrowed the term from the system of psychology proposed by Max Wertheimer of Germany which emphazied that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.The Gestalt therapy emphasizesAwareness in the here-and -now and dream workThe Gestalt dialogue experiment generally utilizes the concepts ofTop dog, underdog,( or games of dialogue and the empty chair technique)Glasser's Choice Theroy postulatesBehavior is really an attemp to control our perceptions to satisfy our genetic needs--survival, love, and belonging, power, freedom, and fun.Critics assert that gestalt therapy is an affective treatment thatOften fails to emphasize cognitive concerns.Rogers' approach is characterized asExistential or humanistic ( sometimes called "third force psychology") because it was a reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis-the two initial forces at the time.In person-centeredReflection is used a lot yet the counselor rarely gives advice.Rogers viewed man asPositive when he develops in a warm, accepting, trusting environmentRogers (person-centered)Individual is good and moves toward growth and self-actualizationBern (transactional Analysis)Messages learned about self in childhood determine whether person is good or bad, through intervention can change this scripFreud (Psychoanalysis)Deterministic; people are controlled by biological instincts; are unsocialized, irrational; driven by unconscious forces such as sex and aggressionEllis ( Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy)People have a cultural/biological propensity to think in a disturbed manner but can be taught to use their capacity to react differently.Perls(Gestalt)People are not bad or good, People have the capacity to govern life effectively as " whole." People are part of their environment and must be viewed as such.Glasser ( Reality Therapy)Individuals strive to meet basic psysiological needs and the need to be worthwhile to self and others. Brain control system tries to meet needs.Adler (Individual Psychology)Man is basically good; much of behavior is determined via birth order.Jung ( Analytic Psychology)Man strives for individuation or a sense of self-fulfillment.Skinner ( Behavior Modification)Humans are like other animals: mechanistic and controlled via environmental stimuli and reinforcement contingencies; not good or bad; no self-determination or freedomBandura (Neobehavioristic)Person produces and is a product of conditioningFrankl (Logotherapy)Existential view is that humans are good, rational, and retain freedom of choiceWilliamson (Trait-factor)Through education and scientific data, man can become himself. Humans are born with potential for good or evil. Others are needed to help unleash positive potential. Man is mainily rational, not intuitive.The counselor's social power is related toExpertise, attractiveness, and Trustworthiness (memory technique) "EAT"Key areas that often cause problems for the counselor's self-image areCompetence, power , and intimacy which impact the counselor's social influenceAllen E Ivey has postulated three types of empathyBasic, subtractive, and additiveBasic empathythe counselor's response is on the same level as the client'sSubtractive empathyThe counselor's behavior does not completely convey an understanding of what has been communicated.Addictive empathyIs most desirable since it adds to the client's understanding and awarenessThe human relations core for effective counseling includesEmpathy, positive regard ( or respect), and genuinenessDifference in Human Relations core and Social Influence coreSocial influence core: expertise, attractiveness and trustworthiness; and human relations core is: empathy, positive regard ( or respect) and genuineness