Which term refers to excessive fluid collecting between the layers of the tunica vaginalis?
Which of the following refers to fibrocystic breast disease?
Fibrocystic breast disease is progressive development of fluid-filled cysts and fibrous tissue
Which is/are sexually transmitted infection(s) usually considered asymptomatic in women?
Which of the following are common early significant signs of acute prostatitis?
soft, tender, enlarged gland and dysuria
Which of the following applies to cerebral palsy?
Cerebral palsy is nonprogressive brain damage to the fetus or neonate.
What is a major predisposing factor to cervical cancer?
sexually transmitted diseases, particularly viral
Which of the following applies to Parkinson's disease?
onset typically occurs in men and women over 60 years of age
Which of the following statements applies to malignant brain tumors?
primary brain tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS
What is the primary cause of type I diabetes?
destruction of pancreatic cells by an autoimmune reaction
Which of the following would identify an open or compound fracture?
the skin and soft tissue is exposed at the fracture site
Which statement applies to menisci?
1. they are fibrocartilage
2. they are secretory membranes in joints
3. they prevent excessive movement of joints
4. they are found in the shoulder joint
1,3 they are fibrocartilage
they prevent excessive movement of joints
All of the following predispose to osteoporosis except:
Estrogen replacement therapy does not predispose a person to osteoporosis
Which of the following is characteristic of osteoarthritis?
degeneration of articulating cartilage in the large joints
What is the basic pathology of rheumatoid arthritis?
a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction
Which signs are typical of Graves' disease?
Exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness are typical signs of Grave's disease.
Where does urine flow?
Urine flows from the collecting duct to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder
Which of the following describes the supply of bile following a cholecystectomy?
small amounts of bile are continuously secreted and flow into the duodenum
What is a cause of acute tubule necrosis and renal failure?
prolonged circulatory shock
sudden significant exposure to nephrotoxins
crush injuries or burns
Which of the following is true of the visceral peritoneum?
It forms the outer covering of the stomach and intestines
The visceral peritoneum is the outer covering of the stomach and intestines.
Which of the following congenital defects is a common cause of cystitis in young children?
Which of the following apply to cleft palate?
the hard and soft palates do not fuse during the first trimester
What describes the basic pathophysiology of myocardial infarction?
total obstruction of a coronary artery causes myocardial necrosis
Which of the following is a major factor contributing to the current increase in cases of tuburculosis?
the increase in immunodeficient individuals
What does the term arteriosclerosis specifically refer to?
degeneration with loss of elasticity and obstruction in small arteries
Which of the following would be significant signs of bronchiectasis?
chronic cough producing large quantities of purulent sputum
Which of the following drugs decreases sodium and fluid retention in the body?
hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL) Hydrochlorothiazide is a drug prescribed to decrease sodium and fluid retention in the body
Why does ventricular fibrillation result in cardiac arrest?
insufficient blood is supplied to the myocardium
Which are predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation?
Damaged blood vessel walls, immobility, and prosthetic valves are all predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation.
What is the cause of chronic bronchitis?
chronic irritation, inflammation, and infection of the larger airways
An atheroma develops from:
accumulated lipids, cells, and fibrin where endothelial injury has occurred
Factors that may precipitate an angina attack include all of the following except:
walking down stairs
What drug is taken in small doses on a continuing basis to reduce platelet adhesion?
acetylsalicylic acid (ASA or Aspirin)
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor in coronary artery disease because it:
promotes thrombus formation
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma differs from Hodgkin's lymphoma in that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma usually presents as:
multiple, scattered, enlarged and painless lymph nodes
One reason for staging a malignant tumor at the time of diagnosis is to:
determine the best treatment and the prognosis
Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood:
Type O blood lacks A and B antigens.
With the acute leukemias, the increased number of malignant leukocytes leads to:
The increased number of malignant leukocytes in acute leukemias leads to decreased hemoglobin, thrombocytopenia, constant bone pain, and splenomegaly
Glucocorticoids are often prescribed during a course of chemotherapy and radiation because:
inflammation around the tumor may be reduced
Which of the following is typical of Hodgkin's disease?
initial tumor is single, painless, enlarged lymph node, often cervical
What is the grading of newly diagnosed malignant tumors based on?
degree of differentiation of the cells
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include:
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include obstruction of a tube or duct and cell necrosis and ulceration.
Iron-deficiency anemia frequently results from any of the following except:
Iron-deficiency anemia does not result from diabetes mellitus.
The role of memory cells is to:
Memory cells support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens
Prolonged administration of glucocorticoids such as prednisone, may cause:
Prolonged administration of glucocorticoids may cause atrophy of lymphoid tissue and decreased protein synthesis.
The warmth and redness related to the inflammatory response results from:
increased blood flow into the area
Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly:
decrease capillary permeability
Which of the following is not classified as protozoa?
If a drug order states that a drug is to be administered tid, it should be given:
three times per day