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39 terms

Organizational Behavior Chapter 13

STUDY
PLAY
Leadership
use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement.
Power
can be defined as the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return.
Legitimate power
is derived from a position of authority inside the organization and is sometimes referred to as "formal authority."
Reward power
exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards another person wants.
Coercive power
exists when a person has control over punishments in an organization.
Expert power
is derived from a person's expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend.
Referent power
exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person.
Influence
is the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others, directional.
Rational persuasion
is the use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one.
inspirational appeal
is a tactic designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction.
Consultation
occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.
Ingratiation
is the use of favors, complements, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer.
Personal appeals
are when the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty.
exchange tactic
used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request.
Apprising
occurs when the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally.
Pressure
use of coercive power through threats and demands.
Coalitions
occur when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target.
Internalization
occurs when the target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request (behaviors and attitudes).
Compliance
occurs when targets of influence are willing to do to what the leader asks, but they do it with a degree of ambivalence (behaviors but not attitudes).
Resistance
occurs when the target refuses to perform the influence request and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it.
Organizational politics
can be seen as actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests.
Political skill
is the ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives.
Networking ability
is an adeptness at identifying and developing diverse contacts.
Social astuteness
is the tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior.
Interpersonal influence
involves having an unassuming and convincing personal style that's flexible enough to adapt to different situations.
Apparent sincerity
involves appearing to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness.
Competing
(high assertiveness, low cooperation) occurs when one party attempts to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other party's results.
Avoiding
(low assertiveness, low cooperation) occurs when one party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict, or postpone the conflict to gather information or let things cool down.
Accommodating
(low assertiveness, high cooperation) occurs when one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way.
Collaboration
(high assertiveness, high cooperation) occurs when both parties work together to maximize outcomes.
Compromise
(moderate assertiveness, moderate cooperation) occurs when conflict is resolved through give-and-take concessions.
Negotiation
is a process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences.
Distributive bargaining
involves win-lose negotiating over a "fixed-pie" of resources.
Integrative bargaining
is aimed at accomplishing a win-win scenario.
Preparation
each party determines what its goals are for the negotiation and whether or not the other party has anything to offer.
BATNA
describes each negotiator's bottom line.
Exchanging information
each party makes a case for its position and attempts to put all favorable information on the table
Bargaining
The goal is for each party to walk away feeling like it has gained something of value (regardless of the actual bargaining strategy).
Closing and Commitment
entails the process of formalizing an agreement reached during the previous stage.