Organizational Behavior Chapter 13
use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement.
can be defined as the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return.
is derived from a position of authority inside the organization and is sometimes referred to as "formal authority."
exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards another person wants.
exists when a person has control over punishments in an organization.
is derived from a person's expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend.
exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person.
is the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others, directional.
is the use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one.
is a tactic designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction.
occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.
is the use of favors, complements, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer.
are when the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty.
used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request.
occurs when the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally.
use of coercive power through threats and demands.
occur when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target.
occurs when the target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request (behaviors and attitudes).
occurs when targets of influence are willing to do to what the leader asks, but they do it with a degree of ambivalence (behaviors but not attitudes).
occurs when the target refuses to perform the influence request and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it.
can be seen as actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests.
is the ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives.
is an adeptness at identifying and developing diverse contacts.
is the tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior.
involves having an unassuming and convincing personal style that's flexible enough to adapt to different situations.
involves appearing to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness.
(high assertiveness, low cooperation) occurs when one party attempts to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other party's results.
(low assertiveness, low cooperation) occurs when one party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict, or postpone the conflict to gather information or let things cool down.
(low assertiveness, high cooperation) occurs when one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way.
(high assertiveness, high cooperation) occurs when both parties work together to maximize outcomes.
(moderate assertiveness, moderate cooperation) occurs when conflict is resolved through give-and-take concessions.
is a process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences.
involves win-lose negotiating over a "fixed-pie" of resources.
is aimed at accomplishing a win-win scenario.
each party determines what its goals are for the negotiation and whether or not the other party has anything to offer.
describes each negotiator's bottom line.
each party makes a case for its position and attempts to put all favorable information on the table
The goal is for each party to walk away feeling like it has gained something of value (regardless of the actual bargaining strategy).
Closing and Commitment
entails the process of formalizing an agreement reached during the previous stage.