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chapter 3

Rhetorical foreground and background
STUDY
PLAY
audience
anyone who may be influenced by a speech, not just the people present
authoritative sphere
only views that are encouraged to be expressed are those which are sanctioned by an established authority
authority
high status, the majority
closed society
in which leaders are responsible for making decisions and suppressing opinions they feel to be unnecessary or dangerous.
constraints
obstacles the rhetor might face w/ audience
contested exigence
rhetorical public speech addresses a problem about whose very reality remains in doubt for an audience
contingency
some unexpected obstacle, perplexity, or problem
conventions
accepted rules of written and spoken language
counter publics
their organization exists outside of and counter to the established mechanisms of the state.
demographics
the characteristics of a population with respect to age, race, and gender.
exigence
an issue, problem, or situation that causes or prompts someone to write or speak.
external constraints
people, objects, processes, and events that may be physically obstruct any productive action even if persuasion of an audience has occurred
internal constraints
constraints related to persuasive effects; beliefs, attitudes, and values of an audience
marginality
low status
message
persuading an audience to think, feel, and act in way different than it already does
motives of the participants
various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral attitudes and responses that may influence their future beliefs, feelings, and actions
occasion
specific setting shared by speaker and audience whose circumstances constrain the form and appropriateness of what is said
open society
society in which facts are made available and judgments are made by its members through open discussion and persuasion
change is not a threat to be feared but a process to be managed
opinion
a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty
personal sphere
technical jargon is shunned in favor of a language which favors the expression of intimate feelings, experiences, and opinions
practical judgement
the act of defining a particular person, object, or event in terms of a general category for the purpose of making a practical decision
presence
"on people's minds"
public
complex interaction of indivuals that constitute a political culture
public opinion
A body of attitudes, beliefs, and views pertaining to specific issues held by a significant proportion of a society.
public sphere
provides diversity of opinions in order to promote new ways of thinking and acting
purpose
one's intention or objective in a speech or piece of writing
rhetor
the speaker who uses elements of rhetoric effectively in oral or written text
rhetorical background
represents the larger environment that defines the historical and social context for any particular rhetorical event
rhetorical constraints
obstacles that must be overcome in order to facilitate both the persuasive and practical effects desired by the speaker
rhetorical exigence
public issue that generates concern and uncertainty and which can be resolved part through rhetorical persuasion
rhetorical foreground
represents the specific and salient aspects of a common situation as it affects or interests some audience at a particular moment in time
rhetorical situation
when oublic contigencies generate concern and uncertainty within a public audience and give force and effectiveness to persuasive discourse which encourages collective action
situated audience
the audience that physically exists together in a particular place and time to hear a message
social knowledge
signifies a cultures conventional wisdom and practical judgement as expressed in maxims, generally held beliefs, and value judgements
speaker
rhetor
state
distinct from the public insofar as it represents the instrument that the public uses to address consequences that it deems important enough to manage
status
how things are "ranked"
target audience
group of people who are both able to be persuaded and capable of acting in such a way to help resolve the exigence
technical situation
exists when we confront problems with a proven discourse and method to guide us
technical sphere
an elite group w/ specialized knowledge use technical jargon to discuss narrow problems in a way that average citizens cannot understand.
uncontested exigence
an audience achieves concensus as to the nature of the problem but is uncertain as to the solution