Chapter 19: Empires in Collision
Terms in this set (16)
Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900, eventually bringing down the Ottoman Empire.
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-19th century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of Westernizing reforms to the political system.
Series of 19th century treaties in which China made major concessions to Western powers.
Rulers of Japan from 1600- 1868.
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term "Tanzimat" means "reorganization"
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan.
"The Sick Man of Europe"
Western Europe's unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the 19th and early 20th centuries; a name based on the sultans' inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with internal problems; it failed to recognize serious reform efforts in the Ottoman state during the period.
China's program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West.
Russo- Japanese War, 1904-1905
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia and precipitated the Russia Revolution of 1905.
Two wars fought between Western powers and China after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions.
The political takeover of Japan in 1868 by a group of young samurai from southern Japan. The samurai eliminated the shogun and claimed they were restoring the power to young emperor, Meiji. The new government was committed to saving Japan from foreign domination. By drawing upon what the modern West had to offer to transform Japanese society.
Royal official (1785-1850) charged with ending the opium trade in Canton, his concerted efforts to seize and destroy opium imports provoked the Opium Wars.
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the 19th century but that retained their own governments and as measure of independence.
Chinese Revolution of 1911
The collapse of China's imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of the troubles that had overwhelmed the government for the previous half-century.
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed.
Sultan Abd al-Hamid II
Ottoman sultan who accepted a reform constitution but then quickly suppressed it, ruling as a reactionary autocrat for the rest of his long reign.
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