How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

113 terms

8th Grade Social Studies Review

STUDY
PLAY
Primary Source
original materials
Secondary Source
a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere
Industrialization
time period when technology grew
Cornelius Vanderbilt
railroad robber baron
Collective Bargaining
the process of negotiation between laborers and management
Monopoly
when a company or person controls most of the business in the industry
assembly line
Created mass production by assembling products along a moving conveyor belt
Capitalism
when private citizens control the means of production
labor union
created during the Industrial Revolution to provide workers with better working conditions
John D. Rockefeller
a philanthropist who had a monopoly in the Oil industry
Haymarket Riot
led to a very low opinion of labor unions after a labor strike turned violent
Strike
when a worker refuses to go to work until an agreement is reached with management
Triangle Fire
tragic event which led to an increased awareness of poor working conditions
Andrew Carnegie
steal king due to his monopoly industry
Robber-baron
business to business who used questionable tactics to make money
Captain of Industry
refers to business leaders who helped America modernize and strengthen the economy
Philanthropist
person who gives money to charity
Sweatshop
workplace where people labor long hours in poor conditions for low pay
Corporation
sells stock to make money
Trust
group of corporations run by a single board of directors
Stock
shares of ownership
Laissez- fairre
little or no government interference in business an the economy
Free- enterprise
businesses are owned by private citizens
capitalism
business people decide what the prices are, what to sell, and how much to sell
Social Darwinism
the belief that the strongest or smartest business people rise to the top. Weaker ones are taken over. " Survival of the Fittest"
Patent
a workplace with long hours, poor conditions and low pay
Transcontinental Railroad
transportation that stretches from coast to coast
Subsidy
money given as aid or a piece of land given by the government
Reservations
land set aside for Indians
Sod House
new kin of shelter on the prairie
Sod-buster
farmers on the plains
inflation
prices increase
Immigrant
one who moves to another country for the purposes of settling there
Ellis island
place in New York Harbor where many European immigrants came when arriving in the U.S.
New Colossus
poem by Emma Lazarus inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty
Chines Exclusion Act
prohibited Chinese workers from coming to the U.S. for 61 years
Quota
a limitation on the number of immigrants allowed into the U.S.
Tenement
an overcrowded apartment building where poor immigrant families lived upon arriving in U.S.
Urban
also known as the city an area with dense population
Suburban
an area on the outskirts of a city with a less dense population
Rural
an area with a very low population which is often characterized by countryside
Push Factor
something that forces one to leave their home country
Pull Factor
something that draws one to a new nation
Angel Island
place in California where many Asian immigrants were processed upon arriving to the U.S.
Ghetto
overcrowded neighborhoods where poor immigrants lived
Nativism
the belief that no new immigrants should be allowed into the country
Illegal Alien
someone in the country illegally
American Dream
the idea that life would be a lot better in America
Progressive Era
1898-1917- the age of reform- at time when reformers wanted to fix the social, political, economic problems in the country
Spoils System
giving government jobs as a reward for political support
Civil Service
government jobs given to people scoring highest on exams
Interstate Commerce
business that goes across state lines
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
law prohibiting business from destroying competition
Political boss
powerful politicians who were corrupt
Primary
voters select the candidate for their political party
Initiative
voters can suggest bills in the state legislature
Referendum
voters can vote directly on bills
Recall
voters can remove elected officials from office
Graduated Income Tax
wealthy pay taxes at a higher rate than the poor or middle class
Square Deal
provide equal opportunities for all Americans to succeed
Trustbuster
person who wanted to destroy all trusts
Conservation
protection of natural resources
16th Amendment
progressive income tax
financed reforms
wealthy pays higher taxes
17th Amendment
direct election of senators
18th Amendment
prohibition banned
19th Amendment
women's suffrage right to vote
Temperance
to ban alcohol
Suffrage
movement of women to get the right to vote
NAACP
promotes racial equality
Self-Interest
when one acts our to selfish reasons when practicing imperialism
idealism
to help another country out of concern for the people
isolationism
non-involvement in foreign affairs
Neutrality
not choosing sides in a foreign conflict
Monroe Doctrine
protect trade and investment in Latin America
Manifest Destiny
1800's belief that Americans had the right to spread across the continent
Imperialism
when stronger countries dominate the affairs of weaker countries
Empire
the US ha create one during the late 1800's to early 1900's by seeking to fulfill our Manifest Destiny
Expansionism
when the US began expanding our borders overseas
Yellow Journalism
exaggerate news stories use to influence public opinion
The USS Maine
US battleship that exploded off of the coast of Cuba in 1898
Imperialist
one who believes it is morally wrong to control the affairs of another nation
Anti-Imperialist
one who believes in stronger nations dominated the political and economic affairs of weaker nations
Annex
to make a piece of land part of a country
Dollar Diplomacy
known as " dollars or bullets" it was president Taft's way of dealing with Latin America through investment not force
Open Door Policy
Allowed the US to trade more freely with China
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
German policy to torpedo any ship neutral or war relate that came near German Waters
Archduke of Austria-Hungary
assassinated in 1914 by a Serbian nationalist this was said to be the immediate cause of WW1
Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride of devotion to one's country
Zimmerman Telegram
a note sent by Germany to Mexico asking Mexico to join Germany if the US enters WW1
Propaganda
used during WW1 to persuade each side to join the war effort
Triple Entente
consisted of Britain, France an Russia at the start of WW1 in 1914
Triple Alliance
consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary an Italy at the start of WW1 in 1914
Preparedness
policy advocated by Wilson due to Germany's continued sinking of neutral ships
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's plan for peace at the end of WW1
League of Nations
a general alliance of nations proposed by Wilson to promote peace and the reason the US refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles
Lusitania
sunk off the coast of Ireland in 1915 by Germany
Flappers
Women who broke from traditional roles in the 1920's regarding fashion and behavior
Speakeasies
illegal bars where people secretly went during the 1920's to drink
Organized Crime
flourished during the 1920s due to gangsters such as Al Capone
Scopes Trial
a biology teacher put on trial for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution in public schools
Sacco an Vanzetti
Italian immigrants put on trail for robbery an murder demonstrated intolerance in the 1920s
Red Scare
an excessive irrational fear that communism was taking over the US
Installment Buying
known as Buy Now Pay Later, this method of purchasing often led to consumer debt
Buying on margin
buying stock with a down payment and borrowing the rest of the money
Truman Doctrine
statement that said the US will protect any nation threatened by communist aggression
Marshall Plan
allowed the US to help rebuild the economies of Western Europe after WW2
Berlin Airlift
US mission to deliver supplies and food to West Berlin after Stalin's blockade
NATO
alliance made in 1949 of Western European nations and the US
Warsaw Pact
alliance made in 1955 of eastern European nations an the Soviet Union
Senator J. McCarthy
led the second Red Scare in the US by falsely accusing Americans of being communist
Mao Tse- Tung
communist leader of mainland China in 1949
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
statement which allowed the US to stop armed attacks or aggression during the Vietnam War
General MacArthur
led UN forces in the Korean War until fired by President Truman