291 terms

Unit 4 Terms and Questions

STUDY
PLAY
Absolute Monarch
Government where the king or queen has total control
Cash crop
A crop grown for profit
Circumnavigate
To travel completely around something (the world)
Colonization
The process of establishing colonies
Commerce
The exchange of goods and services for money
Convent
A religous home for nuns
Deists
A person who beleives in God, but believes He abandonded the universe once He made.
Demography
The scientific study of human populations
Divine
Of or relating to God. Used to refer to God
Divine Right
The belief that kings obtain their power to rule from God and that rebelion against them is a sin.
Humanism
Moral philosophy that considers humans extrememly important
Mercantilism
A country actively sought to trade, but tried not to import more than it exported. Tried to create a favorable balance of trade.
Monastic
Refers to the religous life of a community of monks
Monk
A male who devotes himself to contemplation, prayer, and work
Monopoly
A market where one company has complete control over a particular product or service
Nun
A woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religous life
Papacy/ Papal
Having to do with the Pope
Pope
The head of the Roman Catholic Church
Salvation
God saving humans from death and granting them Eternal Life
Sanctioned
Give authorit or permission (Sometimes permission from the Church)
Urbanization
Many people begin living in cities or suburbs of cities
Utopia/Utopian
An imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal
Vernacular
Slang; Characteristic of a local language
Age of Reason
A movement in Europe that advocated the use of reason and individualism. Sometimes called the Enlightenment.
Akbar the Great (Mughal India)
The third emperor of the Mughal India. Came to power when he was 13. Won support of many Hindus.
Columbian Exchange
Worldwide exchange of plants, animals, diseases between old and new world (Europe and Americas)
Counter Reformation
A period when the Catholic Church underwent a set of internal reforms to stop Christians from converting from Catholisim to Protestanism.
Dutch East India Company
The Netherlands granted a charter to carry out colonization in Asia
Eastern Orthodox
In 1054, the churches that did not follow the leadership of the Pope (Byzantine Empire)
Encomienda System
A system where the Spanish government gave Indian labor rights to colonists
European Exploration
European countries began exploring America and settling the new world looking for trade opportunites and silver and gold
Gutenberg's Printing Press
Moveable type
Hacienda System
Hacienda = Spanish word for estate (Plantations, mines, business factories)
Heliocentric Theory
The theory that the Earth and plantes revolve around the Sun, which is at the center of the universe.
Holy Roman Empire
Western Rome; Empire founded by Charlemagne; Pope was the leader
Huguenots
French Calvinists (Members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France)
Indulgences
A Christian could pay the Catolic Church in order to recieve forgiveness for their sins
Inquisition
The Roman Catholic Church tried and convicted people for heresy
Jannissary Corps
Soldiers that were the Ottomon empire's bodyguards and soldiers.
Jesuit Order
The society of Jesus that defended Catholicism against Protestants; strongly committed to education and scholarship
Martin Luther
Initiated the Protestant Reformation; Believed that Salvation is granted based on faith instead of good deeds
Louis XIV (France)
King of France from 1643-1715; Expanded French influence in Europe
Manchu (Qing Dynasty) China
The last ruling dynasty of China
Peter the Great (Russia)
Introduced ideas from Western Europe to reform the government
Potosi Silver Mine
One of the major silver mines; located in Peru; Enslavement of the native americans
Protestant Reformation
A religous movement in the 16th century; Began as attempting to reform the Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant Churches
Renaissance
A cultural movement; At the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; 14th - 17th centuries
Roman Catholic Church
The Chrisitan Church in west rome that is headed by a Pope
Scientific Methods
A number of techniques used to investigate and experiment wth using Science
Scientific Revolution
A European intellectual movement in the 16th century that led to the basis of modern science; Led to the rejection of doctrines of the Ancient greeks
Shogun
A commander during the Japanese feudal periods; Hereditary military dictator of Japan
Silver or Single Whip System
A reform in China that all land taxes paid in China must be paid in SILVER; (Before this, China had paper money. Now, lots of silver is going into China)
Straits of Malacca, Indonesia
Spice islands
Suleiman the Magnificent (Ottoman)
Prominant monarch in the 16th century; Presiding over the Ottoman's political, military, and economic power
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
Wars between Protestants and Catholics across what was left of the Holy Roman Empire (Germany, Northern Italy and France) in the 1500s.
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
The Vatican
The residence of the Catholic Pope in Rome, Italy (Vatican City)
Zheng He (Ming, China)
The Chinese admiral in contol of the fleet going to East Africa, India, Arabia
Why does the world become smaller?
Almost all civilizations are touched by trade
Power shifts to:
Western Europe
What is an absolute monarchy?
One person has total control
Which Church is reformed?
Catholic
What is the Columbian Exchange?
Food exchange from Europe, Americas, and Africa
Who moves to cities at the END of the Middle Ages?
Serfs move to cities with specialized skills
At the end of the Byzantine Empire, who rises to power?
Ottoman Turks
What are causes of exploration?
Success of Hanseatic league (trading group) and crusades spawn new efficient routes, and new technologies
What was the Sternpost rudder?
Improved steering- Invented in China
What is the lateen sails?
Sails in any direction regardless of wind-Arab
What is the Astrolabe?
Measured distance of sun and stars above horizon-Arab
Who invented the magnetic compass?
Chinese
Explorers and conquerors could use gunpowder against less technologically advanced nations:
When they conquered Americas
What is the Three-Masted Caravel?
Larger sails, large cargo roms with more provisions. Without it, they wouldn't have been able to sail across ocean
Why did they need a sea route to Asia?
Europeans are tired of Middle East being the middleman and getting profit
Renaissance thinking led to belief that:
Man could affect destiny
Marco Polo wrote a book about what?
Visiting Asia and seeing the printing press, gunpowder, and magnetic compass
What is the Iberian Peninsula?
Spain and Portugal
Who was the first exploring country?
Portugal
Where did Portugal explore?
Coast of Africa
Prince Henry the navigator (Portugese) did what?
Set out with his princes on many voyages
Marco Polo did what?
Went to China during the Yuan Dynasty and brought back what he learned to Italy
Vasco de Gama did what?
Explored India and East Africa 1497
Vasco de Gama returned what percent of original investment?
6000%
Ferdinand Magellan did what?
His ships return to Europe in 1522- first circumnavigation
What is on Africa coast?
Gold
What is Goa, Malacca, and Sri Lanka?
Little islands that were trading posts
Where did Spain first explore?
Mexico
Far East and Southeast Asia were:
Too strong to conquer
Coumbus's voyages were financed by:
Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)
Columbus thought he had found:
Indies- "Indians"
Who mapped and named the new world?
Amerigo Vespucci
Treaty of Tordesillas was:
The Line of Demarcation that was through Brazil.
The line of demarcation, who gets what?
Portugal gets East and Spain gets West
Spanish and Portugese wanted to:
Keep Northern Europe out of Atlantic exploration
France and England wanted to find:
A "Northwest Passage" to China and India through Arctic
English fought naval wars with who in the 1500s?
Spain
When do the English establish colonies?
1600s
Plymouth Rock and Jamestown, Virginia
English colonies
When did the British East India company practice?
1600
France colonized what?
Canada
France wanted:
furs
France explored where in the US:
Mississippi and Great Lakes
Netherlands are:
The Dutch
Dutch invaded:
Indonesia
New York was originally:
New Amsterdam
English took Wall Street from:
The Dutch
What are effects of European colonization?
Emergence of truly global economic system and a worldwide system of military competition among European powers and first World Wars
What are themes of European Exploration?
Control over territories, conquereed and colonized, forced open markets
Europe was no longer:
The smallest and weakest civilization
The world is never the same after:
European Exploration and colonization of the Americas
How are enviroments, populations, economies, political systems affected by colonization of the Americas?
Dramatically affected by colonization of the Americas
What did Europeans pay for Chinese products with?
Silver
What countries did NOT trade with the rest of the world?
Japan, Russia, Ottomans, and Internal Africa
What pooled the resources of many merchants and reduced the costs and risks of colonization?
Joint Stock Company
Joint stock company was the beginnings of what?
The modern stock market
The Church began doing what new financial endeavor?
Lending money and charging interest on loans
Dutch East India Company had what?
Spice Islands in Indonesia
British East India Company was located where?
Parts of India
What is Mercantilism?
More money = More Power
What are key points to mercantilism?
Don't import more than you export because a trade deficit implied weakness in own country
Where did the resources from the colonies go?
Back to Mother country
What is the Bourgeoisie?
The Middle class- Doctors, Lawyers
What was wealth based on after colonization?
Industries around MONEY instead of only land
Whey was the European colonization of the Americas successful?
Indigenous people had no resistance to European disease, Natives fear of unknown (metal and horseback), superior weapons
What was Mexico City (New Spain) first called?
Tenochititlan
What were Spain's goals in colonization?
Wealth, raw materials, to spread Roman Catholicism
True or False: The Europeans let the Natives live in peace.
FALSE Native populations were largly wiped out. There are now two Europes essentially
Whate are the White Spanish officials in the Americas called?
Peninsulares
What are the people who were born in colonies to Spanish parents called?
Creoles
Who became leaders of resistance movements?
The creoles
European and Native American ancestry are called what?
Mestizos
European and African ancestry are called:
Mulattos
Did the Native Americans have freedom?
No-little to no freedom
Christian missionaries appealed for reform of what?
Treatment of Native Americans
To reduce strain of Native Americans, what happened?
Africans are brought to Americas
What was Spain's 1 priority in colonization?
Resource extraction
Who was the cruelest of colonizers?
Spain
More slaves brought to ___, than to ___.
Latin America/Caribbean, United States
Who focused on fur trades?
French
The English colonists wanted to:
Escape religous persecution
Who works for who with the Indentured servants?
Europe works for Europe
Who fought the Frech and Indian Wars?
FRANCE AND INDIANS VERSUS ENGLAND
******What was the "Most rapid and profound ecological transformatioins in world history?"
The Columbian Exchange
What was traded and transported in the Columbian Exchange?
Foods, animals, resources, diseases
What came from Africa during the Columbian Exchange?
Food, cultural practices, religous beliefs, dancing, banjos
What came from the Americas in the Columbian Exchange?
Corn, potatoes, sugar cane
Europe gets differnt parts of food pyramid after columbian exchange. Examples are:
Tomatoes and Sugar
What is the biggest reason Africans come to the Americas?
Sugar Cane
What are some European diseases that killed Americans?
Smallpox and measles
What forever altered North and South American ethnicity, religon, language, art, and music?
Movement of Europeans and Africans to the Americas
What is the TRIANGULAR TRADE ROUTE?
Raw materials from the Americas to Europe
Factory produced goods from Europe to Africa
Slaves from Africa to the Americas on MIDDLE PASSAGE
Only 5% of slaves went to North America; most went to:
Carribbean and South America
What went to Europe?
Raw materials, rum, sugar
What went to Africa?
Manufactured goods-guns
What is the right to rule given by God?
The Divine Right
Where was the Ottoman Empire?
Turkey
Where was the Safavid Empire?
Persia
Where was the Mughal Empire?
India
What are characteristics of the three Islamic empires?
1. Extremely centralized 2. Technologically advanced 3. Military powerful 4. "gunpowder empires"
The Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire, and Mughal Empire are what?
The ISLAMIC EMPIRES AT THE SAME TIME BUT IN DIFFERNT PARTS OF THE WORLD
Who overran the the Islamic Empire in 13th century?
Mongols
Ottomans invaded:
Constantinople and challenged Byzantine empire
Sunni thinks ___ can be caliph.
ANYONE
Shia thinks ___ can be caliph.
ONLY RELATIVE OF MUHAMMAD
What religon were the Ottomans?
Muslims
What was the Ottoman's religous policy?
EXTREMEMLY TOLERANT, head tax
Who transformed the cathedreals to mosques (Hagia Sophia)?
Ottomans
Christians and Jews were allowed to___ under the Ottomans?
Practice own religon
Ottomans enslaved who?
Christian subjects' children and turned them into fighting warriors-Janisaries
Suleiman The Magnificent started:
The Ottoman Golden Age
What could have changed THE COURSE OF WESTERN EUROPE?
The Ottomans attacked Vienna, Austria, (Eastern Europe) , but STOPPED
The Ottoman Empire lasted until:
1922 (700 years after it started)
Who was the sovereign over ministers?
The Sultan (otttomans)
Who did the Ottomans convert to Islam and raise to be loyal to sultan?
conquered Christian's children (Janissaries)
The enslaved Jannissaries were equal to:
A knight or navy seal
Sultan =
King/Leader
What is a scholar gentry?
Smart old people
Confucian based civil service exam was ___ during Ming dynasty?
reinstated and expanded
Who was beaten in public in Ming dynasty?
Corrupt public officials
Who was the Chinses Columbus?
Zheng He (He had brief, major expeditions of exploration and trade in EAST AFRICA)
In 1644, who conquered Ming Dynasty?
Jurchens/ Manchus
Who became very powerful and corrupt in China during Manchu dynasty?
Eunuchs (Castrated males)
What does Xenophobic mean?
Dislike people who are different from you
Chung-Cheng, the last Ming emperor, commited suiced after he did what?
Killed his family.
Manchurians took over China and their dynasty was called:
Qing
Manchus kept themselves apart from who?
The Chinese they conquered
Manchus were ___ differnt from Chinese?
Ethnically
What began under Qing?
Full scale trade with Europeans
What is a favorable balance of trade?
IMPORT LESS than you EXPORT and BUY LESS THAN YOU SELL
All Han men were required to wear their hair:
Braided in back
"Lose your hair or lose your...." was something that the Qing leaders said to the ethnic Chinese.
Head
Spain aggresively supported what?
Exploration
Spanish armada was a groups of what?
Ships
What is a heretic?
Someone going against the Church
Why did Spain fail in Americas?
Spent all their money quickly on wars, Missionary activity, and maintenance of huge fleet of ships
Don Quixote was what/
One of the greatest modern works of Western literature
Colonization ensured spread of what?
Spanish language, culture, and Catholicism
What IS THE THIRD ROME?
MOSCOW, RUSSIA
What are the THREE ROMES?
1) ROME; 2) CONSTANTINOPLE 3) MOSCOW
After Rome and Constantinople, Orthodox Christianity moved to:
Moscow
Eastern Orthodox and the Byzantine Empire moved north to Moscow, Russia, when:
The Muslims took over Turkey and Constantinople (Which they renamed to Istanbul)
Ivan the Terrible was the 1st Russian:
Czar
What is Russian for Caesar?
Czar
Russia had centralization of authority and STILL had feudalism, WHEN WESTERN EUROPE was
Evolving
Russia remained isolated from:
West
Western Europe had a renaissance, exlporation, religous debate, scientific enlightenment WHEREAS RUSSIA
Was NOT part of Renaissance, or Reformation (Not Catholic)
Romanov family in Russia ruled:
Ruthlessly
Romanov family created state control over:
The Russian Ortodox Church
Peter the Great was:
"Peter the Poser" because he wanted Russia to be like Western Europe
New capital of Russia was:
St. Petersburg (near water so you could travel quickly to Western Europe)
Catherine The Great (Russia) continued:
Weternization policies of Peter
Saint Pertersburg was known as:
The "Window to the West"
Unlike Chinese/Japanese who fully withdrew from West,
Russians wanted to interact and be like the West
France's main religon was:
Catholic
What are Frence Protestants?
Huguenots
Kings in France ruled using:
Divine Right
Who is a perfect example of an absolute monarch?
Louis XIV
Louis XIV was the ___ King?
"Sun King" The source of light to all his subjects
Art flourished in France because of
Louis XIV
Characterisitcs of absolute monarchies:
Maintenance of Strong Armies, establishment of elaborate bureaucracies, high taxes to support the frequent wars, believe in divine right of kings, territorial expansion a goal
Who is Mongol Timur?
India's Genghis Khan
Delhi taken and ransacked by who?
Mongol Timur
Who is Babur?
Mughal Founder
Akbuar was a Muslim who married a __?
Hindu
Akbar encouraged cooperation bewteen what two groups?
Hindus and Muslims
What is the Persian word for Mongol?
Mughal
What are the three great Muslim empires?
Mughal, Ottoman Empire, and Safavid Persia
All Muslim empires in Unit 4 are:
"gunpowder empires"
Mughal leaders failed to do what?
Solve drama between Hindus and Muslims
Aurangzeb, last emperor of Mughals, did the wrong thing when he did what?
Tried to impose orthodox Islam
Who allie to push out Mughal rule?
Hindu princes
How did Akbar brake with Hindu/Muslim treatment of women?
He encouraged widows to remarry, outlawed sati (ritual suicide at husband's funeral), allowed women following purday (confinement) to get out
Taj Mahal was constructed by who?
Shah Jahan as tomb for wife
What country influenced Japan?
China
What are some characteristics of African kingdoms?
slaves usualy prisoners of war and captives of slave raids
The slaves were treated how by the Europeans?
Terrible- rounded up,forced on ships,chained together, and forced to endure Middle Passage
What conditions were on the slave boats?
Hot, suffocation, starved , killed in revolts, taken to auction blocks
What went to Africans in exchange for slaves?
European guns and manufactured goods
Where did the slaves go?
From Africa to South America or West Indies
SUgar, molasses, and rum produced by slave labor went where?
Europe for manufactured godos
What became prized in Africa as a result of the slave trade?
guns
African slaves Christianized, but
kept parts of their language and culture
What diseases went to the Americas from Europe?
yellow fever, malaria, smallpox, measles
What impact did the European and African diseases hav on the Americas?
Wiped out populations; In Spanish claimed lands, poplutation dropped from 50 million to 4 milliion
Cattle, goats, and chickens came where from where
To Americas from Europe
What are the huge Spanish estates?
haciendas
The estates (haciendas) allowed for what?
Monoculture
What is monoculture?
The growing of large quantities of single crop
The colonization and slave introducing to the Americas has what effect on the world?
FOREVER ALTERS RACIAL AND GENETIC MAKE-UP OF THE WORLD
What are the Europeans after when exploring in the Americas?
Precious metals (Gold and silver)
What did the crusades expose Christians to?
Advanced Islamic civilization
What are the four major movements in Europe?
Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment
What happens during the Renaissance?
Black death stops, poputations increase, people move to cities, middle class emerges, huge infulx of money, interactions with Muslim World,Preservation of Greek/Roman learning by Spain, Weakening Byzantine Empire
What is humanism?
Focus on human endeavor
What is the renaissance man?
Multitalented, like da Vinci- artist, scientist, musician, architect, engnieer
Characteristics of Renassance art?
Themes before were religous, but now more secular
What kind of printing had one page at a time?
Block printing
What kind of printing let you move each individual letters?
Moveable type
Powerful families in Florence did what?
competed to see who had best artists
Compare art before and during Renaissance?
Religous before, now secular; Art in Cathedrals, now in homes; Flat and stiff art before, now softer, human, 3D, and realistic
What helped spread Protestant Reformation views?
The printing press because people demanded more books and Bibles
What did Machiavelli's book, The Prince, express?
The purpose of a leader is to stay in power and the end justifies the means (self-interest more important than morals)
The Catholic Church said what about going to Heaven?
You only go to Heaven if you do it the Church's way.
Why does the power of the Eastern Orthodox Church fall?
Constantinople falls
Where does the Eastern Orthodox Church relocate to after the fall of Constantinople?
Moscow, Russia
What were indulgences?
People paid money for indulgences to the Church. It forgave their sins and reduced time in purgatory
Does the Catholic Church pay taxes?
No
What was the Catholic Church too concerned with?
Wealth and power
What were some of Martin Luther's frustrations with the Catholic Church?
The Church services were in Latin, not in the vernacular(language of the people); Salvation is given by God's grace, NOT through indulgences or the Church; Don't need Church as itermediary-go straight to Bible
What can save a person in Protestant Churches?
Only the grace of God
What led to higher literacy rates in Europe?
Protestants reading the Bible and interpreting for selves
Clergy can marry in what Churches?
Protestant
Protestant Churches rejected what?
The belief that the wine and bread literally = blood and body of Christ
What is the Counter-Reformation?
Catholic Church Reformation
What happened during the Cathlic Counter Reformation?
Stopped selling indulgences, trained Priests/Bishops
Who are Jesuits?
Jesus people; Hardcore missionaries and are really smart
What was the Council of Trent?
Meeting to reform Catholic Church that defined rules for Catholic Church
Who insisted that the Bible be translated to the vernacular/German?
Martin Luther
Who fought the Thirty Years War?
German Princes- Lutheranism (Protests) VS. Catholics
Luther's teachings say what is not necessary?
Priests
As monarchs' power increased, ______ power decreased.
Papal (Pope)
What encouraged education?
Protestants wanted their children to read and interpret the Bible
Who had the heliocentric (sun center) theory?
Copernicus
What did Galileo do?
Logically explained heliocentric theory and his book was banned because it was heretic
What did Newton discover?
Used Calculus prove theories-Gravity
What did Deists believe?
God was a clockmaker in the sky- He made the world and then walked away and didn't have anything to do with it
What contributed to Enlightenment/Age of Reason?
Research based on observation and carefully obtained data
Where is the Divine Right?
Europe
What did Adam Smith contribute?
Wrote Wealth of Nations-book; Laissez-faire ecomomics; "Let the people do what they want."
Challenges of Enlightenment?
Find an end to injustice, inequality, and superstition; Toleration for all religons; breaking down of corrupt instutions such as the Church
Justifications for slavery?
English-racism of Africans; prisoners captured in battle
Northern colonies did not do what?
Keep many slaves