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to process by which a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients that stimulate the growth of aquatic plant life --> depletion of dissolved oxygen
the way that pollutants move throughout an ecosystem (i.e predator eating prey that contains a pollutant, dolphins and mercury)
practice in which natural resources are used and managed in a way that meets the current needs without hurting future generations (i.e global fisheries)
A surrogate species selected with the assumption that protection of its habitat will serve as an "umbrella" to protect many other species; often a species with large or specialized habitat requirements or which is easy to count.
what is smog?
type of air pollution caused by sunlight interacting with pollutants made by fossil fuel emmisions
what is ground level ozone?
NO2 produced in fossil fuel combustions reacts with O2 to create O3 (ozone) --> causes asthma, emphysema
explain the greenhouse effect
earths atmosphere traps solar radiation --> caused by presence of gases (co2, H20, vapor) --> allow incoming light to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the earth's surface
give examples of evidence of climate change
sea levels rising, global temperature rising, icecaps melting, flowers blooming earlier, animals migrating later
the fraction of the total sunlight striking a surface that gets reflected from that surface (albedo that is high, near 1, is very bright)
explain the carbon cycle
plants acquire co2 through their leaves --> photosynthesis --> co2 returned through respiration --> decomposition recycles carbon to the soil and back to the environment
explain the nitrogen cycle
most animals cannot get nitrogen on their own, must get it from plants --> animals eat these plants and incorporate them into their body
type of cell division that results in two daughter cells, each the same type as the parent nucleus (occurs in body cells only)
process by which cells are directed to specialize into different tissues (stem cells to kidney cells, etc)
structure of DNA
sides are alternating sugar and phosphate units, rungs of the ladder are purine and pyrimadines held together by hydrogen bonds
double helix unzips (helicase) --> replication fork --> pair new nucleotides to old ones --> DNA polymerase move along and pair
Law of Segregation (genes segregate from eachother during egg or sperm formation), Law of independent assortment (homologous pairs are oriented randomly)
organic molecule, some humans can make, others they need through consumption (essential amino acids)
types of RNA
messenger RNA (carries info to ribosome)
transfer RNA (carries amino acids to ribosome)
ribosomal RNA (composes parts of the ribosome)
instructions in mRNA to produce protein
start with start codon, end with 3 stop codons in case of a mutation
after polypeptide chains are released from the ribosome they fold into more complex structures
Lamark's Theory of Evolution
characteristics can change over time (giraffes had short necks, since they had to stretch to get food they got longer necks)
Darwin and Wallace
natural selection (giraffes with different sized necks, the ones with longer necks survived -- pass on genes)
evidence of evolution
fossils, vestigial structures (appendix), homologous structures, embryonic development, similarity of genetic code
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