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A south wind:

Blows from the south

A towering cloud, or cluster of clouds, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and strong, gusty winds is a:


Almost all of the earth's weather occurs in the:


Areas of high atmospheric pressure are also known as:


As a radiosonde balloon ascends through the atmosphere, the balloon:


At night, when the weather is extremely cold and dry,

Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing attitude

At the 500 mb level, the amount of oxygen inhaled in a single breath is ____ of that inhaled at sea-level.

About one half

Clouds often form in the:


Condensation is more likely to occur:

When the air cools

Generally, weather in the middle latitudes tends to move from ____ to ____.

West, east

If you were to take a breath of pure oxygen, from a tank, you'd be getting about ____ the amount of oxygen you'd get by taking a normal breath of our atmosphere.

Five times

In a temperature inversion:

Air temperature increases with increasing height

In a volume of air near the earth's surface, ____ occupies 78 percent and ____ nearly 21 percent.

Nitrogen, oxygen

In the atmosphere, tiny solid or liquid suspended particles of various composition are called:


In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds tend to blow ____ and ____ around an area of surface low pressure.

Counterclockwise, inward

In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds tend to blow ____ and ____ around an area of surface high pressure.

Clockwise and outward

In the stratosphere, the air temperature normally:

Increases with increasing height

Meteorology is the study of:

The study of the atmosphere and its phenomena

Most of the ionosphere is found in what atmospheric layer?


Much of Tibet lies at altitudes over 18,000 feet where the pressure is about 500 mb. At such altitudes, the Tibetans are above roughly:

50 percent of the air molecules in the atmosphere

On a weather map, sharp changes in temperature, humidity, and wind direction are marked by:


Ozone in the stratosphere:

Protects life from harmful ultraviolet radiation

Since the turn of this century, CO2 in the atmosphere has:

Been increasing in concentration

The amount of force exerted over an area of surface is called:


The atmospheric layer in which we live is called the:


The difference in altitude (i.e., the thickness) is greatest in the layer bounded by:

1mb and 10mb

The earth's atmosphere is divided into layers based on the vertical profile of:

Air temperature

The electrified region of the upper atmosphere is called the:


The gas responsible for the greenhouse effect on Venus is:

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

The gas that absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere is:


The gas that shows the most variation from place to place and from time to time in the lower atmosphere is which of the following?

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

The greenhouse gas that has been increasing in concentration, at least partly due to deforestation, is:

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

The hottest atmospheric layer is the:


The instrument that measures temperature, pressure, and humidity at various altitudes in the atmosphere is the:


The ionosphere is an atmospheric layer that contains a high concentration of ions. An ion is:

An atom or molecule that has lost or gained an electron

The most abundant gases in the earth's atmosphere by volume are:

Nitrogen and oxygen

The most abundant greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere is:

Water vapor (H2O)

The number or mass of air molecules in a given space or volume is called:


The only substance near the earth's surface that is found naturally in the atmosphere as a solid, liquid, and a gas is:


The primary source of oxygen for the earth's atmosphere during the past half billion years or so appears to be:


The rate at which temperature decreases with increasing altitude is known as the:

Lapse rate

The temperature of the tropopause:

Is much colder than the temperature at the earth's surface

The wind direction is:

The direction from which the wind is blowing

There is a lot of mixing and overturning of air in which of the following atmospheric layers?


Typically, water vapor occupies about what percentage of the air's volume near the earth's surface?

Less than 4 percent

Warming in the stratosphere is mainly caused by:

absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone

Where cold surface air replaces warm air, the boundary separating the different bodies of air is:

A cold front

Which latitude belt best describes the middle latitudes?

30o to 50o

Which of the following are NOT units of pressure?


Which of the following equations is correct?

Weight = mass X gravity

Which of the following is MOST likely associated with fair weather?

High pressure are

Which of the following is considered a variable gas in the earth's atmosphere?

Water vapor

Which of the following processes remove CO2 from the atmosphere?


Which of the following weather elements ALWAYS decreases as we climb upward in the atmosphere?


____ holds a planet's atmosphere close to its surface.


"A good absorber of a given wavelength of radiation is also a good emitter of that wavelength." This is a statement of:

Kirchhoff's law

A change of one degree on the Celsius scale is ____ a change of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale.

Larger than

A red shirt:

Selectively scatters red wavelengths of visible light and absorbs the rest

According to Wein's displacement law, the wavelength at which maximum radiation occurs:

Is inversely proportional to the temperature

An increase in albedo would be accompanied by ____ in radiative equilibrium temperature.

A decrease

Charged particles from the sun that travel through space at high speeds are called:

Solar flares

Clouds ____ infrared radiation and ____ visible radiation.

Absorb, reflect

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers is called:

Visible light

Energy of motion is also known as:

Kinetic energy

Evaporation is a ____ process.


Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from:

Hot objects to cold objects

How do red and blue light differ?

Red has a higher wavelength and lower frequency blue has a lower wavelength

How much radiant energy will an object emit if its temperature is at absolute zero?


If the amount of energy lost by the earth to space each year were not approximately equal to that received,

The atmosphere's average temperature would change

If the average temperature of the sun increased, the wavelength of peak solar emission would:

Shift to a shorter wavelength

If the earth's average surface temperature were to increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface would ____, and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward ____ wavelengths.

Increase, shorter

If the temperature of the air is said to be at absolute zero, one might conclude that:

The molecules contain a minimum amount of energy

If you want to keep an object cool while exposed to direct sunlight,

Wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing outward

In the earth's upper atmosphere, visible light given off by excited atoms and molecules produces:


Most of the radiation emitted by a human body is in the form of:

Infrared radiation

Often before sunrise on a clear, calm, cold morning, ice (frost) can be seen on the tops of parked cars, even when the air temperature is above freezing. This condition happens because the tops of the cars are cooling by ____.


On the average, about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface?


Rising air cools by the process of ____.


Sinking air warms by the process of:


Snow will usually melt on the roof of a home that is a:

A good radiator of heat

Solar radiation reaches the earth's surface as:

Visible light

Sunlight passes through a thicker portion of the atmosphere at:


Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be ____ from the surface.


Suppose you are outside in very cold temperatures, wearing a winter coat that is quite effective at keeping you warm. Which of the following is true?

The coat is the source of the heat that keeps you warm, The coat prevents your body's heat from escaping to the surrounding

The albedo of the earth's surface is only about 4 percent, yet the combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is about 30 percent. Which set of conditions below BEST explains why?

High albedo of clouds, low albedo of water

The amount of heat energy required to bring about a small change in temperature is called the:

Specific heat

The atmospheric greenhouse effect is produced mainly by the:

Absorption and re-emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere

The blueness of the sky is mainly due to:

The scattering of sunlight by air molecules

The change of state of ice into water vapor is known as:


The cold feeling that you experience after leaving a swimming pool on a hot, dry, summer day represents heat transport by:

Latent heat

The earth emits radiation with greatest intensity at:

infrared wavelengths

The earth's radiation is often referred to as ____ radiation, while the sun's radiation is often referred to as ____ radiation.

longwave, shortwave

The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is:

the temperature at which the earth is absorbing solar radiation and emitting , infrared radiation at equal rates

The heat energy released when water vapor changes to a liquid is called:

Latent heat of condensation

The major process that warms the lower atmosphere is:


The processes of condensation and freezing:

Both release sensible heat into the environment

The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is:

Ultraviolet, visible, infrared

The sun emits a maximum amount of radiation at wavelengths near ____, while the earth emits maximum radiation near wavelengths of ____.

.5 micrometers, 10 micrometers

The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in:

The visible portion of the spectrum

The temperature of a rising air parcel:

always cools due to expansion

The term "latent" means:


The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact is:


What is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds?

latent heat

When a plate of hot food is left on the table for awhile, it cools by:


When water changes from a liquid to a vapor, we call this process:


Which of the following determine the kind (wavelength) and amount of radiation that an object emits?


Which of the following has a wavelength shorter than that of violet light?

Ultraviolet radiation

Which of the following is the poorest conductor of heat?

Still air

Which of the following provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules?


Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:

Lower than at present

A radiation inversion is most commonly observed:

Just above the ground

Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the:

Circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans

An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is that:

There is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation

At the North Pole the sun will rise above the horizon on ____ and set below the horizon on ____.

March 21, September 23

At what time during a 24-hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed?

Near sunrise

Considering each hemisphere as a whole, seasonal temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere is ____ that in the Northern Hemisphere.


During an equinox,

The sun is directly above the equator, 0 degrees latitude

During summer near the North Pole, the sun is above the horizon ____ in the mid-latitudes.

On March 20

During the afternoon, the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above occurs on a:

Clear, calm afternoon

During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the "land of the midnight sun" would be found:

At high latitudes

During the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere,

All of these

Ideal conditions for a strong radiation inversion are:

Clear, calm, dry, winter night

In July, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the day is ____ long and is ____ with each passing day.

More than 12 hours; getting shorter

In clear weather, the air next to the ground is usually ____ than the air above during the night and ____ than the air above during the day.

Colder; warmer

In meteorology, the word insolation refers to:

Incoming solar radiation

In most areas, the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs:

In the afternoon between 2 and 5 pm

In summer, humid regions typically have ____ daily temperature ranges and ____ maximum temperatures than drier regions.

Smaller, lower

In the Northern Hemisphere, which of the following days has the fewest hours of daylight?

Winter solstice

In the northern hemisphere, the number of hours of daylight begins to shorten after the:

Summer solstice

Incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer because:

A and b only

Lines connecting points of equal temperature are called:


Longer days are generally associated with:

More rain fall

More solar radiation is received at the:

At the surface

On a clear, calm night, the ground and air above cool mainly by which process?


On the summer solstice, the altitude of the noonday sun is highest:

231/2o north latitude (tropic of cancer)

Over the earth as a whole, one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and from month to month:

On a small island near the equator

Radiational cooling typically occurs:

At night

Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals (frost) on the grass, yet the minimum temperature reported in the newspaper was only 35°F. The most likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that:

Temperature readings are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground

The deepest radiation inversion would be observed:

In polar regions in winter

The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5° with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. If the amount of tilt were increased to 40°, we would expect in middle latitudes:

Hotter summers and colder winters than at present

The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between the:

Time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature

The largest annual ranges of temperatures are found:

At polar latitudes over land

The latitude at which there is a yearly balance between incoming and outgoing radiation is about ____.

37 degrees

The lowest temperature is usually observed:

Around sunrise

The main reason(s) for warm summers in middle latitudes is that:

The sun is higher in the sky and we receive more direct solar radiation, The days are longer

The maximum in daytime surface temperature typically occurs ____ the earth receives its most intense solar radiation.


The primary cause of a radiation inversion is:

Infrared radiation emitted by the earth's surface

The sun is directly overhead at Mexico City (latitude 19°N):

Twice a year

The wind-chill factor:

Relates body heat loss with wind to an equivalent temperature with no wind

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