A towering cloud, or cluster of clouds, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and strong, gusty winds is a:
Almost all of the earth's weather occurs in the:
Areas of high atmospheric pressure are also known as:
As a radiosonde balloon ascends through the atmosphere, the balloon:
At night, when the weather is extremely cold and dry,
Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing attitude
At the 500 mb level, the amount of oxygen inhaled in a single breath is ____ of that inhaled at sea-level.
About one half
Clouds often form in the:
Condensation is more likely to occur:
When the air cools
Generally, weather in the middle latitudes tends to move from ____ to ____.
If you were to take a breath of pure oxygen, from a tank, you'd be getting about ____ the amount of oxygen you'd get by taking a normal breath of our atmosphere.
In a temperature inversion:
Air temperature increases with increasing height
In a volume of air near the earth's surface, ____ occupies 78 percent and ____ nearly 21 percent.
In the atmosphere, tiny solid or liquid suspended particles of various composition are called:
In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds tend to blow ____ and ____ around an area of surface low pressure.
In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds tend to blow ____ and ____ around an area of surface high pressure.
Clockwise and outward
In the stratosphere, the air temperature normally:
Increases with increasing height
Meteorology is the study of:
The study of the atmosphere and its phenomena
Most of the ionosphere is found in what atmospheric layer?
Much of Tibet lies at altitudes over 18,000 feet where the pressure is about 500 mb. At such altitudes, the Tibetans are above roughly:
50 percent of the air molecules in the atmosphere
On a weather map, sharp changes in temperature, humidity, and wind direction are marked by:
Ozone in the stratosphere:
Protects life from harmful ultraviolet radiation
Since the turn of this century, CO2 in the atmosphere has:
Been increasing in concentration
The amount of force exerted over an area of surface is called:
The atmospheric layer in which we live is called the:
The difference in altitude (i.e., the thickness) is greatest in the layer bounded by:
1mb and 10mb
The earth's atmosphere is divided into layers based on the vertical profile of:
The electrified region of the upper atmosphere is called the:
The gas responsible for the greenhouse effect on Venus is:
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The gas that absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere is:
The gas that shows the most variation from place to place and from time to time in the lower atmosphere is which of the following?
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The greenhouse gas that has been increasing in concentration, at least partly due to deforestation, is:
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The hottest atmospheric layer is the:
The instrument that measures temperature, pressure, and humidity at various altitudes in the atmosphere is the:
The ionosphere is an atmospheric layer that contains a high concentration of ions. An ion is:
An atom or molecule that has lost or gained an electron
The most abundant gases in the earth's atmosphere by volume are:
Nitrogen and oxygen
The most abundant greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere is:
Water vapor (H2O)
The number or mass of air molecules in a given space or volume is called:
The only substance near the earth's surface that is found naturally in the atmosphere as a solid, liquid, and a gas is:
The primary source of oxygen for the earth's atmosphere during the past half billion years or so appears to be:
The rate at which temperature decreases with increasing altitude is known as the:
The temperature of the tropopause:
Is much colder than the temperature at the earth's surface
The wind direction is:
The direction from which the wind is blowing
There is a lot of mixing and overturning of air in which of the following atmospheric layers?
Typically, water vapor occupies about what percentage of the air's volume near the earth's surface?
Less than 4 percent
Warming in the stratosphere is mainly caused by:
absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone
Where cold surface air replaces warm air, the boundary separating the different bodies of air is:
A cold front
Which latitude belt best describes the middle latitudes?
30o to 50o
Which of the following are NOT units of pressure?
Which of the following equations is correct?
Weight = mass X gravity
Which of the following is MOST likely associated with fair weather?
High pressure are
Which of the following is considered a variable gas in the earth's atmosphere?
Which of the following processes remove CO2 from the atmosphere?
Which of the following weather elements ALWAYS decreases as we climb upward in the atmosphere?
____ holds a planet's atmosphere close to its surface.
"A good absorber of a given wavelength of radiation is also a good emitter of that wavelength." This is a statement of:
A change of one degree on the Celsius scale is ____ a change of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale.
A red shirt:
Selectively scatters red wavelengths of visible light and absorbs the rest
According to Wein's displacement law, the wavelength at which maximum radiation occurs:
Is inversely proportional to the temperature
An increase in albedo would be accompanied by ____ in radiative equilibrium temperature.
Charged particles from the sun that travel through space at high speeds are called:
Clouds ____ infrared radiation and ____ visible radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers is called:
Energy of motion is also known as:
Evaporation is a ____ process.
Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from:
Hot objects to cold objects
How do red and blue light differ?
Red has a higher wavelength and lower frequency blue has a lower wavelength
How much radiant energy will an object emit if its temperature is at absolute zero?
If the amount of energy lost by the earth to space each year were not approximately equal to that received,
The atmosphere's average temperature would change
If the average temperature of the sun increased, the wavelength of peak solar emission would:
Shift to a shorter wavelength
If the earth's average surface temperature were to increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface would ____, and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward ____ wavelengths.
If the temperature of the air is said to be at absolute zero, one might conclude that:
The molecules contain a minimum amount of energy
If you want to keep an object cool while exposed to direct sunlight,
Wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing outward
In the earth's upper atmosphere, visible light given off by excited atoms and molecules produces:
Most of the radiation emitted by a human body is in the form of:
Often before sunrise on a clear, calm, cold morning, ice (frost) can be seen on the tops of parked cars, even when the air temperature is above freezing. This condition happens because the tops of the cars are cooling by ____.
On the average, about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface?
Rising air cools by the process of ____.
Sinking air warms by the process of:
Snow will usually melt on the roof of a home that is a:
A good radiator of heat
Solar radiation reaches the earth's surface as:
Sunlight passes through a thicker portion of the atmosphere at:
Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be ____ from the surface.
Suppose you are outside in very cold temperatures, wearing a winter coat that is quite effective at keeping you warm. Which of the following is true?
The coat is the source of the heat that keeps you warm, The coat prevents your body's heat from escaping to the surrounding
The albedo of the earth's surface is only about 4 percent, yet the combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is about 30 percent. Which set of conditions below BEST explains why?
High albedo of clouds, low albedo of water
The amount of heat energy required to bring about a small change in temperature is called the:
The atmospheric greenhouse effect is produced mainly by the:
Absorption and re-emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere
The blueness of the sky is mainly due to:
The scattering of sunlight by air molecules
The change of state of ice into water vapor is known as:
The cold feeling that you experience after leaving a swimming pool on a hot, dry, summer day represents heat transport by:
The earth emits radiation with greatest intensity at:
The earth's radiation is often referred to as ____ radiation, while the sun's radiation is often referred to as ____ radiation.
The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is:
the temperature at which the earth is absorbing solar radiation and emitting , infrared radiation at equal rates
The heat energy released when water vapor changes to a liquid is called:
Latent heat of condensation
The major process that warms the lower atmosphere is:
The processes of condensation and freezing:
Both release sensible heat into the environment
The proper order from shortest to longest wavelength is:
Ultraviolet, visible, infrared
The sun emits a maximum amount of radiation at wavelengths near ____, while the earth emits maximum radiation near wavelengths of ____.
.5 micrometers, 10 micrometers
The sun emits its greatest intensity of radiation in:
The visible portion of the spectrum
The temperature of a rising air parcel:
always cools due to expansion
The term "latent" means:
The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact is:
What is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds?
When a plate of hot food is left on the table for awhile, it cools by:
When water changes from a liquid to a vapor, we call this process:
Which of the following determine the kind (wavelength) and amount of radiation that an object emits?
Which of the following has a wavelength shorter than that of violet light?
Which of the following is the poorest conductor of heat?
Which of the following provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules?
Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:
Lower than at present
A radiation inversion is most commonly observed:
Just above the ground
Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the:
Circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans
An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is that:
There is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation
At the North Pole the sun will rise above the horizon on ____ and set below the horizon on ____.
March 21, September 23
At what time during a 24-hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed?
Considering each hemisphere as a whole, seasonal temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere is ____ that in the Northern Hemisphere.
During an equinox,
The sun is directly above the equator, 0 degrees latitude
During summer near the North Pole, the sun is above the horizon ____ in the mid-latitudes.
On March 20
During the afternoon, the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above occurs on a:
Clear, calm afternoon
During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the "land of the midnight sun" would be found:
At high latitudes
During the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere,
All of these
Ideal conditions for a strong radiation inversion are:
Clear, calm, dry, winter night
In July, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the day is ____ long and is ____ with each passing day.
More than 12 hours; getting shorter
In clear weather, the air next to the ground is usually ____ than the air above during the night and ____ than the air above during the day.
In meteorology, the word insolation refers to:
Incoming solar radiation
In most areas, the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs:
In the afternoon between 2 and 5 pm
In summer, humid regions typically have ____ daily temperature ranges and ____ maximum temperatures than drier regions.
In the Northern Hemisphere, which of the following days has the fewest hours of daylight?
In the northern hemisphere, the number of hours of daylight begins to shorten after the:
Incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer because:
A and b only
Lines connecting points of equal temperature are called:
Longer days are generally associated with:
More rain fall
More solar radiation is received at the:
At the surface
On a clear, calm night, the ground and air above cool mainly by which process?
On the summer solstice, the altitude of the noonday sun is highest:
231/2o north latitude (tropic of cancer)
Over the earth as a whole, one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and from month to month:
On a small island near the equator
Radiational cooling typically occurs:
Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals (frost) on the grass, yet the minimum temperature reported in the newspaper was only 35°F. The most likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that:
Temperature readings are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground
The deepest radiation inversion would be observed:
In polar regions in winter
The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5° with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. If the amount of tilt were increased to 40°, we would expect in middle latitudes:
Hotter summers and colder winters than at present
The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between the:
Time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature
The largest annual ranges of temperatures are found:
At polar latitudes over land
The latitude at which there is a yearly balance between incoming and outgoing radiation is about ____.
The lowest temperature is usually observed:
The main reason(s) for warm summers in middle latitudes is that:
The sun is higher in the sky and we receive more direct solar radiation, The days are longer
The maximum in daytime surface temperature typically occurs ____ the earth receives its most intense solar radiation.
The primary cause of a radiation inversion is:
Infrared radiation emitted by the earth's surface
The sun is directly overhead at Mexico City (latitude 19°N):
Twice a year
The wind-chill factor:
Relates body heat loss with wind to an equivalent temperature with no wind
Two objects, A and B, have the same mass but the specific heat of A is larger than B. If both objects absorb equal amounts of energy,
B will become warmer than A
Water heats up ____ and cools off ____ than land.
More slowly, more slowly
When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is ____ and ____ in the Southern Hemisphere.
Where are the days and nights of equal length all year long?
At the equator
Which latitude below would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 22?
Which of the following can be used as a method of protecting an orchard from damaging low temperatures during a radiation inversion?
Orchard heaters, Wind machines, Irrigation (cover the area with water)
Which of the following is NOT a reason why water warms and cools much more slowly than land?
It takes more heat to raise the temperature of a given amount of soil 1oC than it does to raise the temperature of water 1oC
A high water vapor pressure indicates:
A relatively large number of water vapor molecules in the air
As the air temperature increases, the air's capacity for water vapor:
As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the relative humidity will:
As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will:
Remain the same
As the difference between the air temperature and the dew point increases, the relative humidity:
At what time of day is the relative humidity normally at a minimum?
When the air temperature is highest
If the air temperature remains constant, evaporating water into the air will ____ the dew point and ____ the relative humidity.
In a blinding snowstorm in Vermont, the air temperature and dew-point temperature are both 30°F. Meanwhile, under clear skies in Arizona, the air temperature is 85°F and the dew point temperature is 38°F. From this information, you could conclude:
There is more water vapor in the air in Arizona
Nighttime temperatures rarely drop below the dew point temperature because:
At saturation, latent heat of condensation is released into the air
Suppose saturated polar air has an air temperature and dew point of -10°C, and unsaturated desert air has an air temperature of 35°C and a dew point of 10°C. The desert air contains ____ water vapor and has a ____ relative humidity than the polar air.
Suppose the dew point of cold outside air is the same as the dew point of the air indoors. If the door is opened and cold air replaces some of the warm air, then the new relative humidity indoors would be:
Higher than before
The Gulf Coast states are more humid in summer than the coastal areas of Southern California mainly because of the:
Higher water temperature in the Gulf of Mexico
The lowest temperature that can be attained by evaporating water into the air is known as the:
Wet - bulb temperature
The main reason why vegetables take longer to cook in boiling water at high altitudes is because:
The temperature of the boiling water decreases with increasing altitude
The percentage of water vapor present in the air compared to that required for saturation is the:
The ratio of the mass of water vapor in a given volume (parcel) of air to the mass of the remaining dry air describes the:
The temperature at which water boils depends mainly on:
The temperature to which air must be cooled in order to become saturated is the:
Dew point temperature
The time of day when the relative humidity reaches a maximum value is usually:
At the time when the air temperature is lowest
When the air is saturated, which of the following statements is NOT correct?
An increase in temperature will cause condensation to occur
When the air temperature increases, the saturation vapor pressure will:
Which of the following will increase in a rising parcel of air?
Which of the following will increase the relative humidity in a home during the winter?
Taking a shower and letting the air circulate through the home
A conditionally unstable atmosphere is ____ with respect to unsaturated air and ____ with respect to saturated air.
A knowledge of air stability is important because:
It determines the vertical movement of air
A rising parcel of air that does not exchange heat with its surroundings is an example of:
An adiabatic process
A sounding can be measured by:
Air which resists vertical displacements is considered to be:
An example of orographic clouds would be:
Clouds forming on the windward slope of a mountain
If an air parcel is given a small push upward and it continues to move upward on its own accord, the atmosphere is said to be:
If an air parcel is given a small push upward and it falls back to its original position, the atmosphere is said to be:
If the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic rate, the atmosphere is:
If you were to take a trip during the summer from Ohio to Nevada, you would most likely observe that afternoon cumulus clouds ____ as you travel west.
In a conditionally unstable atmosphere, the environmental lapse rate will be ____ than the moist adiabatic rate and ____ than the dry adiabatic rate.
Most thunderstorms do not extend very far into the stratosphere because the air in the stratosphere is:
Subsidence ____ stability.
The difference between the "moist" and "dry" adiabatic rates is due to:
The fact that latent heat is released by a rising parcel of saturated air
The dry adiabatic lapse rate is ____ greater than the moist adiabatic lapse rate.
The most latent heat would be released in a ____ parcel of ____ saturated air.
The name commonly used to describe the drier region observed on the downwind (leeward) side of a mountain range is:
The rate at which the actual air temperature changes with increasing height above the surface is referred to as the:
Environmental lapse rate
The rate at which the temperature changes inside a rising (or descending) parcel of saturated air is called the:
Moist adiabatic lapse rate
The temperature an air parcel would have if it were moved to a pressure of 1,000 mb at the dry adiabatic rate is called the:
What two sets of conditions, working together, will make the atmosphere the most unstable?
Cool the surface and warm the air aloft
When the environmental lapse rate decreases more rapidly with height than the dry adiabatic rate, the atmosphere is:
Which cloud type below would most likely form in an unstable atmosphere?
Which of the following cloud types would commonly be found downwind of a mountain?
Which of the following conditions would be described as the most stable?
Which of the following environmental lapse rates would represent the most unstable atmosphere in a layer of unsaturated air?
11oC per 1,000 m
Which set of conditions, working together, will make the atmosphere the most stable?
Cool the surface and warm the air aloft
A mirage is caused by:
The bending of light by air of different densities
Air molecules selectively scatter visible light because:
Air molecules are smaller than the wavelength of visible light
Another name for diffuse light is:
As light passes through ice crystals, ____ is bent the least and is, therefore, observed on the ____ of halos or sundogs.
At sunset in the middle latitudes, look for a rainbow toward the:
Halos are caused by:
Refraction of light passing through ice crystals
If the setting sun appears red, you may conclude that:
Only the longest waves of visible light are striking your eye
On a foggy night, it is often difficult to see the road when the high beam lights are on because of ____ of light by the fog.
Red sunsets, blue moons, and milky-white skies are mainly the result of:
Refraction of light by the atmosphere is responsible for:
All of these
Secondary rainbows occur when:
Two internal reflections or light occur in raindrops
Stars are not visible during the day because:
The sunlight is so bright
The bending of light that occurs when it enters and passes through a substance of different density is called:
The blue color of distant mountains is due primarily to:
Scattering of light
To see a sundog, you should look about 22 degrees:
To the right or left of the sun
What color would the sky be if air molecules selectively scattered only the longest wavelengths of visible light?
Which of the following are capable of producing a red sunrise or sunset?
All of these
Which of the following are caused by the bending of light through ice crystals?
Halos and sundogs
Which of the following can only be seen when the sun is to your back and it is raining in front of you?
Which of the following is TRUE about rainbows?
To see a rainbow, you should look towards the west
White light is ____ of electromagnetic radiation.
A mixture of all visible wavelengths
You would most likely see a halo or sundog with which of the following cloud types?