44 terms

Exploration/Renaissance/Scientific/Reformation

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Compass
navigational instrument for finding directions
Astrolobe
allowed observers to chart the postions of the stars and calculate their positions on earth
Mercantilism
theory, gov't should do all commercial interests to increase country's wealth
Subsides
grants of money used by gov to est industries
galleys
long ships powered by slaves in euro trade in the 1400s
Baldassare Castiglione
wrote The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Lorenzo Medici
A leader of Florence, he used his power and wealth to become a great patron of the arts (helping to grow the Renaissance).
Realism
artistic representation famous for visual accuracy
Sofonisba Anguissola
a female renaissance artist best known for her self-portraits and for her portrait of philip II
Leonardo Da Vinci
painter, sculptor, engineer, architect, inventor used scientific experiences to enhance drawings - anatomy, famous for Mona Lisa
Michelangelo Buonarroti
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Raphael
beautified Vatican , Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520)
Giotto
realist painter
Titan
became one of the first to receive money for his paintings; made Assumption of the Virgin
Johannes Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
Thomas Moore
humanist, wrote Utopia, criticized society
William Shakespeare
famous Renaissance writer
Perspective
an artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
Masaccio
important realist paint term used for lights/shadow to give depth
Joseph Priesty
english chemist, discovered oxygen
Robert Boyle
founder of modern chemistry
Robert Hooke
first to observe "small chambers" in cork and call them cells.
Gottfried Wilhem Leibniz
German, made calculus
Albrecht Durer
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)
Johann Tetzel
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Lutheranism
teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone
Lutheran Church
The church that broke off from the Catholic church to follow the reformative concepts advocated by Martin Luther
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Protestants
a reformer who protested against the abuses of the catholic church in the 1500's:a member of a church desceneded from those that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church during 1500's
Peace of Ausburg
agreement that the religion of each german state is selected by its ruler
King Henry
Wanted to divorce his wife; left church and created new Anglican Church
John Calvin
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
Predestination
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Pope Paul IV
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Sci Revolution
thinking transformation where proven by experiments
Scientific Method
experiments and math to verify results and make logical conclusions
Copernicus
made heliocentric theory, but couldn't prove with available knowledge
Principle of Doubt
Things must be proven with Math or experiment
Kepler
used math to test copernicus's theory; but only mathematicians understood his proof
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
Andrea Vesalius
flemish scientist; studied anatomy