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US History Second Semester Final Terms

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Baby Boomers
the sharp increase in the U.S. birthrate following WWII
Cesar Chavez
Mexican-American farm worker who organized a union for most of California's Spanish-speaking farm workers
Chester Nimitz
commander of American naval forces in the Pacific
Desert Fox
General Erwin Rommel chased the African Korps
Dougals MacArthur
general for Allied Forces in the Philippines
Dwight D. Eisenhower
launched operation Torch
Operation Torch
an invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa
Henry Kissinger
National Security Adviser who planned to end America's involvement in Vietnam
John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States 35th President of the United States;redefined the nation's nuclear strategy; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963
Little Rock Nine
integrated the schools in Arkansas
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
Mao Zedong
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
Phyllis Schlafly
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s; went against the Equal Rights Amendment
Richard Nixon
elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine also. He was involved in Détente, which was a way to create peaceful relations between the United States and the communist countries of Moscow and Beijing. One of the most distinct factors relating to Nixon was that he was the first President to ever resign due to the Watergate scandal. He resigned on August 8, 1974.He was the Repubican President of the United States during the Vietnam War (1969-1974). He made many improvements for the environment, and he took the United States off the gold standard. As a result of the Watergate Scandal, Nixon was forced to resign. Many other problems hurt his term such as the energy crisis, but mainly Watergate. He removed US troops from Vietnam in 1973 with his Vietnamization policy.
Sandra Day O'Connor
first woman supreme court justice. appointed by Reagan
William Rehnquist
Nominated by Regan in an attempt to push the Supreme Court in a more conservative direction.
William Westmoreland
American General who commanded American military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak from 1964 to 1968
38th Parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Berlin
located in Eastern Germany, divided to the East by Russia and to the West by France, England and the US
Berlin Wall
a concrete wall that separated East Berlin and West Berlin from 1961 to 1989, built by the Communist East German government to prevent its citizens from fleeing to the West
Dien Bien Phu
Vietminh overran this French outpost, in northern Vietnam
Guadalcanal
first U.S. land victory over the Japanese, 1943
Iwo Jima
United States fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima; battle produced some of the fiercest fighting in the Pacific Campaign of World War II; major island in island hopping campaign
My Lai
Lieutenant William Calley Jr. had massacred innocent civilians while searching for Vietcong rebels
Nicaragua
country where rebels known as Sandinistas had overthrown the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza (in power since 1930)
Regan cut aid as soon as Sandiniastas were in office
Nuremberg
site of court proceedings after WW II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes
Okinawa
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 21, 1945, the U.S. had lost 7,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Panama
President Carter turned over the control of the Panama Canal to this country
Saigon
formerly (as Saigon) it was the capital of French Indochina
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Battle of the Bulge
a month-long battle of World War ll, in which the Allies succeeded in turning back the last major German offensive of the war
Bay of Pigs
President Eisenhower gave the CIA permission to secretly train Cuban exiles for an evasion of Cuba. It was a fail!
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
December 7, 1941
Pearl Harbor
June 6, 1944
D-Day: Allies launched an invasion of the European mainland during World War ll
The Tet Offensive
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in 1968
V-E Day
May 8, 1945, "Victory in Europe Day": General Eisenhower's acceptance of the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany marked the end of World War ll in Europe
appeasement
the granting of concessions to a hostile power in order to keep the peace
ARVN
Army of the Republic of Vietnam: the southern Vietnamese soldiers with whom U.S. troops fought against communism and forces in the North during the Vietnam War
Body Count
a way of measuring success in Vietnam--by the number of VC killed
Bracero Program
Wartime agreement between the United States and Mexico to import farm workers to meet a perceived manpower shortage; the agreement was in effect from 1941 to 1947.
Cold War
the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War ll
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
a loose association of former Soviet republics that was formed after the breakup of the Soviet Union
Contras
Nicaraguan rebels who received assistance from the Reagan administration in their efforts to overthrow the Sandinista government in the 1980s
De Facto Segregation
racial separation established by practice and custom
Iran-Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
Isolationism
opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries
Korematsu v. United States
supreme court decide that the government's policy of evacuating Japanese Americans were justified on the basis of "military necessity"
McCarthyism
the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being Communists in the early 1950s
Napalm
a gasoline based substance used in bombs that U.S. planes dropped in Vietnam in order to burn away jungle ans expose Vietcong hideouts
Navajo Code Talkers
Native Americans from the Navajo tribe used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not decipher
Sandinistas
belonging to a leftist rebel group that overthrew the Nicaraguan government
Suburbs
a residential town or community near a city
Supply-side economics
the idea that a reduction of tax rates will lead to increases in jobs, savings, and investments, and therefore to an increase in government revenue
The Feminine Mystique
written by Betty Friedan, analyzed the problems of middle-class American women and argued that they were being denied equality with men
Tiananmen Square
the site of 19689 demonstrations in Beijing, China, in which Chinese students demanded freedom of speech and a greater voice in the government
Vietcong
the South Vietnamese Communists who, with North Vietnamese support, fought against the government of South Vietnam in the Vietnam War
Vietnamization
President's Nixon's strategy for ending U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, involving gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops and their replacement with South Vietnamese forces
Camp David Accords
historic agreements between Israel and Egypt, reached in negotiations at Camp David in 1978
Helsinki Accords
a series of agreements that promised greater cooperation between the nations of Eastern and Western Europe
Immigration Act of 1965
a law that increased the number of immigrants allowed to settle in the United States
Marshall Plan
the program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after World War ll
Medicare
a federal program, established in 1965, that provides hospital insurance and low-cost medical insurance to Americans 65 and older
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
a resolution adopted by Congress in 1964, giving the president broad powers to wage war in Vietnam
Truman Doctrine
a U.S. policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
VISTA
Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communties
Warsaw Pact
a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern satellites
Yalta Conference
meeting to discuss Germany's fate and the postwar world
Freedom Riders
civil rights activists that rode the buses through the South in the early 1960s to challenge segregation
HUAC
a congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following World War ll
La Raza Unida
a Latino political organization founded in 1970 by José Angel Gutiérrez
National Organization for Women
an organization founded in 1966 to pursue feminist goals, such as better childcare facilities, improved educational opportunities, and an end to job discrimination
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
New Right
a late 20th-century alliance of conservative special-interest groups concerned with cultural, social, and moral issues
United Nations
an international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, found in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development