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63 terms

Diseases of the Respiratory System

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primary function of the respiratory system
obtain oxygen and exchange it with carbon dioxide and to the blood for distribution
function of respiratory structures in the nasal cavity
filter, warm, and moisten inhaled air for entry into lungs
secondary functions of respiratory system
coughing, sneezing, talking, and singing (secondary because they are not due to oxygen delivery or carbon dioxide exchange)
pharynx
throat
larynx
voice box
trachea
windpipe
bronchi
one goes to each lung
bronchioles
smaller tubes of the bronchi
alveoli
small air sacs that come from the bronchioles
process of air being inhaled
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
surfactant
oily lubricant that reduces tension and keeps aveoli apart
muscles of inspiration
(inhalation) diaphragm and external intercostals
muscles of expiration
(exhalation) relaxation of diaphragm and external intercostals.
abdominals and internal intercostals when breathing is difficult or labored
membranes of the lungs
pleura and pleural cavity
pleura
double membrane, one layer covers the lungs the other lines the inner chest walls
pleural cavity
space in between the pleura that contains fluid that lubricates lung surfaces and reduces friction and creates pressure vacuum to protect the lung from collapsing
symptoms of respiratory disease
dyspnea, hemoptysis, tachypena, cyanosis
fever, coughs, fatigue, sinus throat and chest pain, sinus and nasal drainage, weakness of muscles and voice
dyspnea
labored breathing
hemoptysis
coughing blood
tachypena
rapid breathing
cyanosis
blue coloring due to decreaased oxygen
diagnostic procedures for respiratory disease
total lung volume: 6 liters
respirations per minute: 20-30
spirometry: measeures vital capacity
upper respiratory infections
common cold, sinusitis, nasal polyps, obstructive sleep apnea, allergic rhinitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, influenza
common cold
there are 200 strains of virus
acute inflammation of mucous membrane lining causing swelling and mucous secretions
sinusitis
inflammation of the mucus membranes of the sinuses
sinuses are the air filled spaces in the head
nasal polyps
noncancerous growths within the nasal or sinus passageway.
cause unknown but typically due to allergy to aspirin
obstructive sleep apnea
most common sleep disorder
interruption in the normal sleeping pattern is known as apnea
causes poor night sleep and decreases quality of life
75% cases decreased blood flow to the brain
allergic rhinitis
"hay fever"
sensitivity to airborne allergens
release of histamine causes excessive mucus, runny nose, and congestion
tonsillitis
infection of lymphatic tissue
treatment: tonsils may be removed with recurrent infection
pharyngitis
infection of the pharynx
strep throat caused by streptococci bacteria and diagnosed through immunological test
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx and characterized by aphonia
aphonia
hoarseness or lost voice
influenza
viral infection
lower respiratory infections
COPD, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, pneumonia, pleurisy, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumothorax, respiratory distress syndrom, bronchogenic carcinoma, atelectasis
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
numerous conditions where exchange of respiratory gases is ineffective
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
acute bronchitis
cause: irritants (fumes, automobile exhaust)
dangerous in small children chronically ill and elderly characterized by chest pain, fever, chills
chronic bronchitis
repeated attacks of bronchitis with sputum productions lasting 3 months for 2 consecutive years
mucous reduces oxygen levels resulting in hypoxia
bronchial asthma
constriction of walls of the bronchi and bronchioles
breathing/expiration becomes difficult
mucous membranes are swollen, excessive secretions
major characteristic is wheezing sound
stale air becomes trapped
increased incidence with obesity
treatment of bronchial asthma
avoid allergens, epinephrine, cortisone
tracheotomy may be needed for status asthmaticus
emphysema
disease caused by a restriction or obstruction resulting in the destruction of lung and vascular tissue
what happens in emphysema
alveolar walls break down
lungs lose elasticity causing difficulty exhaling
can result in atelectasis (lung collapse)
possible causes of emphysema
long term exposure to irritants and/or smoking
symptoms of emphysema
suffocating feeling and great distress
emphysema detected by
stethescope
cystic fibrosis
disease that affects the exocrine glands that secrete mucus that blocks gland ducts
thick mucosal surface increases susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections
manifests in young children
hereditary: autosomal recessive
cystic fibrosis primary cause of death
respiratory failure
pneumoconiosis
is a COPD caused by dust particles
pneumonia
acute inflammation of the lungs where air spaces in the lungs are filled with an inflammatory exudate (fluid)
lobar pneumonia
entire lobe of the lung is involved
bronchopneumonia
bronchi become obstructed
more common in debilitated patients who are less mobile or bedridden from other diseases
primary atypical pneumonia
"walking pneumonia"
diffuse pattern on x-ray
secondary pneumonia
immune system weakened from other conditions
legionnaire's disease
air borne bacteria on small droplets
potentially fatal
pleurisy
inflammation of pleural membranes
extremely painful
pulmonary tuberculosis
infectious disease causing necrosis of lung tissue
people lose weight and become cachectic (commonly called consumption) or "wasting away"
primary infection of pulmonary tuberculosis
bacteria causes caseous lesion (soft ad cheeselike)
heal and fibrose/calcify forming tubercles that wall off the bacteria
secondary infection of pulmonary tuberculosis
bacteria escape from the tubercles or a second exposure occurs
leukocytes now attack the bacteria and cause greater lung tissue destreuction (also attacks bone, liver, kidney, and brain)
pneumothorax means...
air in chest
outer air gets in
atelectasis
lung collapse
respiratory distress syndrome (adult)
due to aspiration or inhalation of food or vomit material into the respiratory pathways
respiratory distress syndrome (infant)
stiff lung
bronchogenic carcinoma
most common type of lung cancer
greatest danger of blockage of airway
80% of cancer related to smoking