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Unit Three Test
Terms in this set (40)
In one sentence for each resource-water, food, and oxygen- explain how this resource helps provide power to the human body?
Water is necessary for enzymatic reactions that require the breaking down of digestive materials. Food is utilized by breaking down key components and then transferring that energy into ATP through cellular respiration. Oxygen is needed during the process of aerobic respiration in which mitochondria use it to convert it into ATP.
What factors do you think influence how long your body can last without food, water or oxygen?
Environmental Factors such as temperature and humidity can affect how long you can last because when it goes higher, you are utilizing more energy and therefore there is a greater demand for these resources and vice versa. The human metabolic rate can also affect how long one can last as well as body fat percentage because someone with a fast rate would need more of those resources since they are consuming energy at a faster rate. Lastly, the amount of physical activity and training one has can also affect it because you are giving yourself mental strength and can develop a tolerance level for how long you can go without certain components.
How do you think the brain and the nervous system assist in times of limited body resources?
They reduce how much activity the body is undergoing in certain organ systems so that energy can be conserved and the body can make the most of the resources it is given.
How did the swimmer in the video prepare for the energy demands he was about to place on his body?
He trained himself so that he would be able to swim long distances without tiring as easily as he would have had he not been trained, he put on a considerable amount of weight (fat) so that his body would have energy to consume during the long swim, and he developed a strong mental state of mind so that he was mentally prepared for the swim.
How did his body manage his fuel reserves? What macro molecules did his body look to first for energy? What did his body do when this resource ran out?
At the very beginning, monosaccharides would be broken down for energy like glucose and then once that was depleted, he would then move on to poly saccharides like glycogen. Finally, he would break down lipids which is what he stored up on for energy.
List the body systems that were affected during Mauro Prosperi's journey across the desert. Describe how you think he was able to last as long as he did. Think about how his body would deal with his environment and how Mauro could work to conserve his energy resources.
His nervous system sent out signals to the other body systems to reduce the amount of energy they used and to conserve water to essential body systems like the urinary system. The urinary system's hormones, ADH and aldosterone would be limited, thus conserving the amount of water his body stored. Lastly, the endocrine system would send out signals to the hormones ADH and aldosterone to regulate the urinary system itself.
What type of meal would a long distance runner or swimmer want to eat the night before a grueling race? Explain your choices.
They would want to have a meal rich in polysaccharides like starches which would then be stored in the muscles and liver in the form of glycogen and the body would immediately be able to use that energy during the race.
Why do enzymes only work on their specific substrate?
Enzymes have active sites which are shaped in specific ways that only allow them to be bonded to specific substrates.
What would happen if there were no enzymes in the human body? Explain your answer.
Without enzymes, we would not be able to function and thus die since they are required within almost every biochemical reaction that occurs within our body. We wouldn't be able to break down food, absorb nutrients, produce ATP, or send out impulses anymore.
Why is it important to eat a balanced diet containing essential vitamins?
Vitamins serve a very important role in our body as they as they act as co enzymes which allow enzymes to complete their reactions. Another important set of functions includes transporting oxygen, building bones, strengthening the immune system, and producing pigments.
Describe the main function of the human digestive system?
It takes in, breaks down, and absorbs key nutrients that are necessary in creating ATP for energy and functioning.
For lunch, you have a turkey sandwich on wheat bread with mayonnaise and lettuce. Describe how each component of this meal would be broken down in the digestive system?
At the beginning, we would masticate the food through mechanical digestion in our mouths. The carbohydrates in the bread would break down with salivary amylase, as well as some carbohydrates within the lettuce. Proteins with the turkey and mayonnaise break down from pepsin in the stomach. The small intestine breaks down the turkey and mayonnaise with lipids (lipase) and the rest of the carbohydrates break down by pancreatic amylase. The nutrients are all absorbed in the small and large intestines.
Using what you know about the chemical makeup of stomach contents and the control of food moving through the GI tract, provide a reason some people get heartburn. What is actually happening to cause this burning sensation in the chest?
Heartburn, or acid reflux is associated with the lower esophageal sphinctor not working properly and so when it contract the esophagus closes its connection to the stomach. However, if the sphinctor itself is not working properly, the acidic contents can be splashed upwards and into the esophagus which is not accustomed to withstand the acidic contents and therefore the burning sensation is felt.
Provide and example that illustrates how the structure of an organ in the digestive system is specifically linked to its function.
The small intestines main job is nutrient absorption so in order for it to absorb a large amount of nutrients, there also needs to to be an increased surface area and this is possible by the folds , the villi in the surface,and the microvilli that are within the villi themselves.
Explain what happens in the large intestine to cause diarrhea or constipation. How does the function of the large intestine relate to another key resource?
The large intestine is related to absorption of water. But when the body does not absorb enough water or if there are nerve impulses causing more materials to be moving around that the rate of water movement, diarrhea occurs. But if the rate of water absorption is too high, and there are not enough materials being sent by nerve impulses, constipation occurs.
How can the field of material science engineering be applied to human body systems?
Many medical producers that occur relating to the human body systems which incorporate synthetic materials into the actual treatments and an example includes the stent that is placed into the balloon during an angioplasty procedure.
List and describe three factors that could possibly affect catalase activity.
Temperature can increase a reactions rate up to a certain point but it would denature if too high and goes over 45 degrees Celsius. An optimum level of pH would also affect the rate of reaction and make it go faster.Lastly, a proper concentration of the enzyme itself can also affect the rate of reaction as well.
Why is it important that cells contain catalase?
They need catalase to break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen because they are very damaging and can destroy a cell without the enzyme.
Based upon your experimental results, write a paragraph discussing the relationship between environmental conditions and enzyme function.
There are two main environmental factors that can have a direct impact on enzyme function and theseIt include pH and temperature. It can speed up a reaction if high enough but if too high, then the enzymes shape would denature, ruining the reaction. Also pH would also increase the rate of reaction if it is at an optimum level and too high of a pH can also denature the proteins as well, ruining the shape and this ruining the rate of reaction.
High fever can be a very dangerous condition for anyone, as it is an indicator of a serious infection. Based on this project, suggest a possible explanation for the medical concern.
Proteins denature at 45 degrees Celsius but they pose a threat if over 41.5 degrees Celsius. This is because when it is that high, the enzymes are functioning slower and once they reach the threshold, they won't work at all anymore, leading to permanent brain damage within patients and death if the body does not cool down.
In what structures do the enzymes actually chemically digest food?
Salivary amylase digests food within the mouth and the esophagus while pancreatic amylase digests food in the duodenum of the small intestine.
Based on the information you have learned about the digestive system, what do you expect to be the optimal pH for the enzymatic action of pancreatic amylase?
It would be between 6 to 8 since the reaction occurs at the beginning of the small intestine, where the pancreas is neutralizing the chyme and shifting the pH from 2 to this optimal range.
What are the limitations of using BMI as a measure of weight and overall health? How migh muscle tone affect BMI?
Although BMI is a reliable resource when measuring weight and overall health, it has limitations in that it does not account for extraneous variables which can affect a person's BMI. An example includes athletes who are in good shape and maintain a high percentage of muscle mass so the might fall into the obese category when in reality, they do not have much fat on their bodies. Another example includes someone with dense bones and women with large breasts.
What are factors that increase or decrease BMR?
Body size, body composition, gender, and health all affect BMR. Body size increases metabolic rate directly because wight, height and surface area of a person also increase. Body composition showcases that fat tissue has a lower metabolic rate compared to muscle tissue so lean muscle mass increases metabolic rate. Gender showcases that women on average have more body fat and therefore have a lower BMR. Lastly, overall health if negative, can increase the resting metabolic rate.
What are the health risks associated with high levels of saturated fat and cholesterol in the diet? Think back to what you learned in PBS.
They are at risk for atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke.
Each gram of fat you consume provides over twice as many calories as a gram of protein or carbohydrates. What does this tell you about your body's ability to burn off these three fuels? Which would require the most energy to burn?
Carbohydrates and proteins typically require less energy to use than fats do and a s a result, fats need more energy to burn and are a last resort.
Discuss at least two health risks faced by people with a BMI over 25.
They may be at risk for heart disease or diabetes because there is an increased risk of changes in blood pressure and changes to walls of blood vessels. Increased risk in diabetes includes prolonged blood glucose levels in a person's diet.
Discuss at least two health risks faced by people with a BMI under 20.
They may be at risk for malnutrition, a weak immune system, and an increased risk of infection. There is also a greater risk for developing anemia because of an inadequate intake of iron.
Describe how being overweight affects at least three other body systems.
Cardiovascular-increased risk of heart disease and other related problems like high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.
Skeletal-More weight puts a strain on the bones like the spine and lower back area.
Respiratory-Lungs are smaller in size in obese people so they find it harder to breath and the weight of the chest also contributes to this difficulty in breathing.
Describe how being underweight affects at least three other body systems.
Immune- Immune system is compromised so people find it easier to catch diseases.
Muscular- Poor muscle growth and movement
Skeletal-there is a reduced amount of nutrient absorption which can cause osteoporosis in bones.
Explain how a nutritionist might help an athlete train for a major competition.
They could help the athlete track what they have been eating and then make a plan of food groups to consume and what not to consume right before the race and also give tips on muscle growth.
What are three food groups that are considered good energy sources.
Pasta, rice and potatoes which are high in starch and contain polysaccharides that be broken down over long periods of time to provide the body with ATP
Name three specific body processes that require energy in the form of ATP.
Muscle contraction, sodium potassium pump, and active transport of substances in cells.
What does AMP stand for and how do you think it would be created?
It stands for Adenosine monophosphate and is produced when two phosphate groups are removed
Explain how the recycling of ATP helped save Mauro Prosperi. Why is the ability to recycle this molecule an advantage?
He had no new sources to get ATP so if his body did not recycle the ATP, he would have no energy to deal with his body's daily processes
Explain the role food, water, oxygen play in the creation of ATP or the release of energy from this molecule.
Water helps enzymes in breaking down food which is then used along with oxygen to make ATP and water also breaks the bond of the third phosphate group to release energy that is stored.
The wall of the alveoli are incredibly thin. Explain how this structure is related to function in the body.
They have to be thin in order to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to move quickly and diffuse through the respiratory membrane
Use the principles of diffusion to explain why oxygen molecules in the tissue of the lung go into the blood, and then in the other tissues the oxygen molecules leave the blood.
Oxygen moves across these body processes though a process of diffusion and moves from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration and then again.
What changes inside the airways in the lungs leads to an asthma attack?
Mucuous production increases, the smooth muscles of the bronchi and the bronchioles contract, and the tissue is inflamed which narrows the pathways and restricts airflow.
Explain how monitoring Melissa's response to medication to wheezing events can help in making a clinical diagnosis of asthma.
If she responds positively to a treatment like an inhaler than the treatment is effective.
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