99 terms

ADJ 107 - Criminology Exam 2 (Final)

Life course theorists conclude which of the following factors influence criminality?
All of these - social, personal, and economic
What is known about the age of onset and the continuity of crime?
All of these are known
Which of the following is not more typical of early-onset girls than early-onset boys?
substance abuse
Most life course theories assume that the seeds of a criminal career are planted early in life and that early onset of deviance strongly predicts _____.
Later and more serious criminality
The pathway to crime that begins with minor, underhanded behavior that leads to property damage is known as:
the covert pathway
The pathway of crime that begins with bullying and annoying others and then escalates to physical fighting and violence is known as:
the over pathway
A small group of offenders who begin their career at an early age and then continue to offend well into adulthood are known as:
life-course persisters
According to the social development model, to control the risk of antisocial behavior a child must maintain:
prosocial bonds
According to the interactional theory, the onset of crime can be traced to a deterioration of the social bond
Agnew's general theory of crime identifies five life domains that shape how an individual reacts to constraints and motivations. Which of these is not a life domain?
When referring to age-graded theory, research supports Sampson and Laub's suspicion that criminal career trajectories can be reversed if:
life conditions improve
Positive relations with individuals and institutions that are life sustaining are known as:
social capital
A stable feature, characteristic, property, or condition present at birth or established early in life that makes some people crime-prone over the life course is known as a:
latent trait
According to control-balance theory, this occurs when the amount of control one is subject to by others is in balance with the amount of control one can exercise over others.
According to latent trait theories, while the propensity to commit crime is stable, the ____ to commit crime fluctuates over time.
According to control-balance theory, direct forms of physical violence, such as robbery and sexual assault, are known as ____ behaviors.
The view that both biological and psychological traits influence the crime-non-crime choice is known as:
human nature theory
Gottfredson and Hirschi identify people with limited self-control as tending to be:
Gottfredson and Hirschi trace the root cause of poor self-control to inadequate:
child rearing practices
Violence acts that vent rage, anger, or frustration are known as:
expressive violence
The link between substance abuse and violence occurs in three different formats. Violent behavior that results from conflict inherent in the drug trade is known as:
systemic link
Which is an inaccurate statement pertaining to the violent crime of rape?
Under Babylonian and Hebrew law, the rape of a virgin was lauded and brought prestige to the rapist's family and tribe.
When an attacker does not want to harm his/her victim as much as he/she wants to possess him/her sexually, it is known as:
power rape
Which of the following casual explanations for rape reflects the evolutionary view?
The sexual urge corresponds to the unconscious need to preserve the species by spreading one's genes as widely as possible.
When referring to gender and the crime of murder, what percentage of murderers are male?
90 percent
While few in number, who is a female murderer most likely to kill?
a family member
When referring to serial killers, what is known?
All these things are known about serial killers
The crime that requires offensive touching, such as slapping, hitting, or punching a victim is:
Levin notes that some people may not attack minorities but think nothing of telling jokes with racist themese or agreeing with people who despise gays. Levin called such people:
Workplace violence accounts for ___ percent of all violent crime.
Women are most likely to be stalked by:
an intimate partner
If a political criminal plots to overthrow an existing government and replace it with one that holds views he/she finds more acceptable, we would say that this criminal has _____ as a goal.
Randy Borum's cognitive stages of becoming a political criminal seem similar to what social process theory?
Neutralization Theory
In the _____ stage of the cognitive process of becoming a political criminal, the individual concludes that the undesirable condition is a product of injustice - that is, it does not apply to everyone.
"It's not fair."
Borum has identified the cognitive process political criminals use to form ideas. What is the proper ordering of the cognitive stages of becoming a political criminal?
It's not right, It's not fair, It's your fault, You're evil
The political crime of election fraud tens to involve ___ in order to bring about a desired election outcome.
tampering with vote counts
The use of secret prisons to detain terror suspects without trial and the use of illegal interrogation to obtain confessions are examples of what type of state political crime?
human rights violations
While the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, a terrorist has a/an ___ focus and a guerilla has a/an ___ focus.
The Rand Corporation has identified four ways that terror groups use violence to achieve their goals. Which hypothesis states that violence is used to attract the attention of potential recruits and supporters?
the rall hypothesis
According to this motivational view, terrorists are not poor or lacking in education. While terrorists may feel isolated from the rest of society, their tight bonds of family and friendships encouraged them to join terror groups.
socialization / friendship view
This type of terrorist group uses violence to frighten those in power with the aim of replacing the existing government with a regime that holds acceptable political or religious views.
revolutionary terrorists
The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) and the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) are examples of what type of terrorist group?
What federal level actions were taken after the terrorist attacks of September 11th?
The FBI realigned its priorities
Which of the following is not a specifically assigned mission of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)?
expanding surveillance of cyber space to identify terrorists
As an example of how difficult it is to protect United States borders and prevent the entry of terrorist groups, how many of the 50,000 cargo containers that enter the country on a daily basis are screened?
less than 5 percent
Public meeting places, often taverns, that served as heaadquarters for gangs and thieves in the 18th century were known as:
flash houses
By the 18th century, which of these types of property criminals were active?
all of these choices
Criminal acts designed to bring financial reward to an offender are known as:
economical crimes
Occasional property crimes occur when there is an opportunity or:
situational inducement
Whose name do we associate with the classic book, the Professional Thief?
Harry King
A successful fence must meet which of the following conditions?
All of these choices
Amateur fences who barter stolen goods for services are known as:
associated fences
Sutherland's concept of professional theft has two critical dimensions. First, thieves engage in limited types of crime. The second requirement is the:
exclusive use of wits, front, and talking ability
Car theft usually motivated by a teenager's desire to acquire the power, prestige, sexual potency, and recognition associate with an automobile is known as:
What do we know about ssytematic check forgers?
They make a substantial living by cashing bad checks
Common theft-related offenses including auto theft, shoplifting, and credit card fraud fall into the crime category of:
street crime
What percentage of shoplifters are professionals who derive the majority of their income from shoplifting?
When caught, shoplifters try to rationalize their behavior. Cromwell and Thurman found widespread use of which social process theory?
neutralization theory
Usually respectable persons who do not conceive of themselves as thieves, but are systematic shoplifters who steal merchandise for their own use are called:
Professional shoplifters who steal with the intention of reselling stolen merchandise to pawnshops or fences are known as:
heels or boosters
Which of the following is a prevention strategy to reduce or eliminate shoplifting?
all of these
Cashing forged checks because of a financial crisis that demands an immediate resolution is known as:
Which of the following elements would have legally constituted burglary during the late middle ages?
an occurence during the nighttime hours
In states that enact laws specifying different degrees of burglary, the most serious and heavily punished crimes involve:
nighttime forced entry into a residential structure
A burglar who has technical competence, maintaing personal integrity, specializes in burglary, has financial success and has the ability to avoid prison sentences is known as:
a good burglar
When a business owner burns his or her property, or his hires someone to do it, to escape financial problems is known as:
arson fraud
Using illegal tactics to make profits in the marketplace is known as:
enterprise crime
A white-collar crime in which a stockbroker makes repeated trades with a client's account in order to fraudulently increase his or her commissions is known as:
In 1977, Congress passed the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act that made it illegal to:
bribe foreign officials
For the government to prove tax fraud, the minimum dollar amount that must be involved is:
There is no minimum dollar amount
Tom Delay was forced out of politics by his involvement in a bribery scandal involving Washington, D.C. lobbyist Jack Abramoff. Representative Randy "Duke" Cinningham resigned from Congress after confessiong to accepting $2.4 million in bribes. Former Illinois Governor George Ryan was convicted of steering government contracts to people willing to give him kickbacks and bribes. All three of these men committed the white-collar crime of:
influence peddling
When fimrs fivide a region into territories and each firm agrees not to compete in the others' territories, it is illegal and is called:
division of markets
Rationalizing their ___ is a common trait of white-collar criminals
According to Cressay, embezzlement is caused by a/an:
nonshareable financial problem
What theory can be used to explain the collapse of Enron?
corporate culture theory
One method of controlling white-collar crime is through the use of compliance strategies. How do compliance strategies work?
compliance strategies do all these things
It is believed that most organized crime income comes from narcotics distribution, loan sharking, and:
While narcotics distribution, loan sharking, and prostitution are traditional sources of organized crime income, in recent years organized crime groups have branched into:
Organized crime has branched into all these criminal activities
Which of the following is not an emergent trend among organized crime groups?
It has become less common to see criminal groups cooperating across ethnic and racial lines
Indications are that the traditional organized crime syndicates are:
erodiing and in decline
What investigative model was shaped by RICO's success?
the enterprise theory of investigation
Act that are considered illegal because they threaten the general well-being of society and challenge its accepted moral principles are known as:
public order crimes
Some refer to public order crimes as "victimless crimes" because participants are willing and not actually harmed. Other claim there is no such thing as victimless crime. Who, then, should be considered the victim?
society as a whole
Obtaining sexual pleasure from spying on a stranger while he or she disrobes or engages in sexual behavior with another is known as:
Commercial sexual transactions contain which condition?
Economic transaction
These prostitutes are considered the lease attractive, lowest paid, most vulnerable men and women in their profession.
street walkers
The life of streetwalkers is very dangerous. Research indicates ____ percent of streetwalkers experience violence.
B-girls spend time in bars, drinking and waiting to be picked up by customers. It is common to find B-girls in towns:
with military bases
The aristocrats of prostitution are call girls. Upon their retirement, what is it that call girls can sell for thousands of dollars?
their date book
The sexual equality view of prostitution considers the prostitute a victim of:
male dominance
The word obscenity is derived from the Latin caenum, for:
The problem of controlling pornography centers on teh definition of:
What do we know about the link between pornography and violence?
All these things are known
An effort to prohibit the sale of liquor in the United States that resulted in the passage of the 8th Amendment to the Constitution in 1919 is known as the:
temperance movement
The most recent findings from the United Nations Global Survey of world drug use indicate:
The drug epidemic may be abating
According to the social learning view of drug abuse, parental drugs abuse begins to have a damaging effect on children as young as ____ years old.
Adult predatory drug users who are rarely arrested are considered "winners" who are known for their calculated violence and whose criminal careers can span 15 years without interruption by arrest. These users are sometimes referred to as:
stabilized junkies
What factor impedes the effectiveness of a source control strategy of drug control?
All these factors impede the effectiveness of a source control strategy
Because massive efforts to control drugs through prevention, deterrence, education, and treatment strategies have proved unsuccessful, some call for legalizing drugs. What do proponents of drug legalization suggest as a benefit of this strategy?
Proponents of legalization suggest all these benefits