what removes CO2 from exhaled air before being reinhaled?
soda lime granules
unsafe pressure for small animals
over 20 cmH2O
pure oxygen to patient from the oxygen flush valve
volume of air inspired or expired in a single breath
respiratory rate less than____ breaths per minute should be reported
what ET tube as an eye at the end?
normal respiratory rate for dog under anesthesia
8-20 per minute
rubber ET tubes may
non-rebreathing system requires higher oxygen than rebreathing system
carbon dioxide absorber is used only with the rebreathing system
closed rebreathing anesthetic systems have a lower flow rate than semiclosed rebreathing or nonrebreathing systems
which vaporizer is most common?
nonrebreathing systems should have maintenance flow rates that are
very high at least 200ml/kg.min
minimum size for reservoir bag
what sets the pace of the heart?
what chemical substances produced by the body contributes to intense pain associated with inflammation?
prostaglandins, histamine and proteolytic enzymes
why is pain more vague in the throacic and visceral areas?
few sensory nerves
what re the most commonly usede analgesics for postop pain?
what are predominately used for mild-to-moderate chronic musculoskeletal pain?
opioids have analgesic effects because
ineteract with specific opioid receptors in brain and spinal cord
NSAIDS have analgesic effects because
inhibition of cyclooxygenase
increased response to a stimulus that is normally painful
production of pain due to a stimulus that dose not normally provoke pain
kappa and mu are?
types of opioid receptors in the CNS
what is one drug that has no analgesic effects?
which opioid receptor provides the most pain relief?
absence of pain in the presence of stimuli that would normally be painful
common side effects of narcotics in dogs
panting, respiratory depression and bradycardia
respiratory rate and adequacy of ventilation measured with
oxygen flow rate at beginning
collapsed or airless state of the lung
class by itself
alpha 2 agonist
alpha 2 agonist
some pain relief
state of calm taht patient is reluctant to move and is aware of but unconcerned of surroundings
patient that is moderately dehydrated or anemic is at a
class 3 anesthetic risk
increases heart rate
CO2/sodasorb should be changed
every 8-10 hours
signs of CO2 absorber not working
tachypnea, tachycardia, brick red mm, cardiac arrhythmias
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