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Domain II, ESL Instruction and Assessment

Audiolingual method (ALM)

Popular in 1st half of 20th century and included mimicry, memorization and manipulation drills.


Language teachers create states of minds for maximum retention of material in L2 featuring relaxation. Includes a) emphasis on childlike experimentation with L2; b) strong use of L2 for explanations and discussions; c)encourages lack of inhibition and natural language acquisition, and d) authority figure decides instructional program.

Total Physical Response (TPR)

Teacher gives commands and models the physical movement to carry out the command; focuses on listening and comprehension by responding to commands with appropriate physical movement.

Natural Approach

Based on Krashen's theory of language acquisition which assumes that speech emerges in four stages: 1) preproduction (listening skills), 2) early production (two words and short phrases), 3) speech emergence (long phrases and sentences), 4) intermediate fluency (meaningful conversation). Techniques focus on maximizing comprehensible input in low anxiety situations.

Stages of Oral Language Development

Pre-production, Early Production, Speech Emergence, Intermediate Fluency

Receptive Skills

Reading and Listening

Expressive Skills

Writing and Speaking

Phonological Awareness

The ability to recognize the sounds in spoken language and how they can be segmented (pulled apart), blended (put back together), and manipulated (added, deleted, and substituted).

Phonemic Awareness

a subset of phonological awareness and refers to the ability to recognize the phonemes in a spoken language.

graphophonemic awareness

understanding that the sequence of letters (or graphemes) in written words represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words.

Print and Book Knowledge

general knowledge of print and book concepts; parts of books and function and directionality of text.


a combination of rate and accuracy that includes prosody: expression, appropriate phrasing, and attention to punctuation.

Goodman's four cueing systems for reading

graphophonemic, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic


making meaning of text by monitoring context, prior knowledge, personal associations with text, and structure of text.


part of speech or word that makes sense based on the grammar of the language and interrelatedness of words and sentences within connected and meaningful text


function of text, the construction of meaning while reading, context

Triad Connection Support

Affective, Linguistic, and Cognitive

Learning Strategies

Metacognitive, Cognitive, Social/Affective

Strategies for Reading Comprehension

identify the purpose for reading, use graphemic rules, silent reading techniques, skim, scan, semantic mapping or clustering, analyze vocabulary, distinguish between literal and implied meaning

6+1 Traits Model for Writing Instruction

Ideas, Organization, Voice, Word Choice, Sentence Fluency, Conventions, Presentation

Stages in Writing Process

Pre-writing, Drafting, Conferencing, Revising, Editing, Sharing

Social/Affective Strategies

group discussion, self talk, interaction with others

Cognitive Strategies

highlighting, note-taking, (How do I learn?)

Metacognitive Strategies

predicting, evaluating, (Why do I learn?)


the degree to which a test measures what it is claimed to measure


the internal cohesiveness of a testing measure

Cultural Bias

ignoring cultural differences and imposing, interpreting, and judging by standards inherent to the dominant culture


system of assessments designed to show a students proficiency level of beginning, intermediate, advanced and advanced high in the domains of language including listening, speaking, reading, and writing

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