The Craft of Research - ISL
Terms in this set (37)
According to the authors, why is research NOT like riding a bike?
According to the authors, research may become second nature for the experienced researcher but it is not viable to compare it to riding a bike. This is so, simply because every single research project has inmesurable differences with any other. Each topic, field, community, culture and mentality will most likely change the quality of the research topic. Choosing the topic not only entails deciding what to reseach, but how and with what kind of lenses is it going to be approached from.
Why is it important to work with a plan?
It's very important to work with a plan because no matter how difficult it gets the researcher will always have a guide as to what he wants or needs to accomplish his true purpose, which is to answer his research question and develop new knowledge.
Why is there a need for writing research up in a formal report?
So everyone can understand the logic and the flow of the paper, and when we present such text to the reader he can pinpoint different key perspectves that might have been missed or wrongfully accepted.
Why do the authors suggest that we create roles for ourselves as well as for our readers? What are some of those possible roles?
We- as researchers - create roles to keep us line. Taking into account that when you write a paper, from the tone to the vocabulary, everything changes. This is simply because the main goal is to express and expand processed knowledge to other people. Now, when it comes to the reader, he or she will always demand to feel the same amount of emotion from the author in order to incorporate information, understand it, and have it ready to use when such is need.
Why do the authors suggest finding a question that solves a problem before starting your research?
The authors suggest finding a question first, because if one starts collecting all kinds of data on a specific topic the outcome will not be accountable as new knowledge, and instead it will just be a sum/list of information amalgamated in one paper, without making it useful orpurposefully supporting or answering a question. Papers should not support data just for the sake of it, there must be a question worth answering to make the work valuable to others.
How do you go from a topic to a question? What are some of the ways the authors suggest you do this?
In order to create the key question, you must formulate smaller questions -who, what, when, where - that point you to the right data to answer them, and then elaborate the bigger/central question - always focusing on how and why - around your topic. The purpose of the smaller questions is to stimulate awareness about the topic and decide on what are the areas that could/should be researched. Some ways to create questions are to:
• Ask about the history of the topic, meaning to search for how it fits into a large developmental context and how it changed through time.
• Ask about its structure and composition, meaning to search for how it fits into a larger structure and how it fits together as a system.
• Ask how your topic is categorized, meaning to search for how it can be grouped into kinds and compared and contrasted with others.
• Turn positive questions into negative ones.
• Ask speculative questions - What if? Meaning to search for situations where the topic changes drastically in quality.
• Ask questions suggested by your sources and then ask questions that reflect disagreement, meaning to search for ideas that stimulate an argument based on another's and either support or dispute such argument in any way.
• Evaluate your questions in order to build and improve upon the first ones. It is necessary to have a solid, meaningful question to back up a serious research.
What is the three-step formula?
Why do the authors suggest using the three-step formula?
They recommend using the formula because it helps the writer develop from a data collector's point of view to researcher's point of view, meaning that his focus is shifted towards understanding valuable information to others and himself. At first, the significance of the question relies only on the researcher's interest, but then, that significance expands to his readers as well. That responsibility, and relationship between researcher/writer and reader states a non-verbal contract towards deeper understanding of a problem in need of solution.
What is the difference between a practical problem and a research problem? How are they related?
A practical problem has to do with any tangible problem that imposes intolerable costs - cost: unhappiness, but a research problem has to do with answering a question that helps us understand something about the world that remains unclear - consequence: effect upon not understanding the functional implications of the whole picture. They are related in terms of cause-effect. The practical problem creates the need to resolve the research problem in order to take the best decisions, which, then again, solve the practical problem. It's a cause-effect cycle.
How can we distinguish between pure and applied research?
A pure research happens when the solution to a problem does not bear on any practical situation in the world, but only improves the understanding of a community of researchers. Now, when the solutions to the research problem do have practical consequences, that's called applied research.
How do the authors suggest we can go about finding a good research problem? According to you, what is the importance of doing this?
We need to show that the answer to the indirect question in step 2 plausibly helps answer the indirect question un step 3. In addition to this, if we think that the solution to the conceptual problem might apply to a practical one, we should formulate our problem as a pure research, then add the application as a fourth step.
In my opinion, it's importance lies in the fact that the structure helps us build and develop a clear, functional research that collaborates with humanity's need for understanding and/or improvement of how we do things everyday. Whether it is a pure or applied research, if it's properly developed, the result will be an either small or large advancement added to how to approach life.
My three step Formula
I will be studying the effects of learning a language abroad, because I want to find out how does studying a language abroad impact or improve a student's level and use of such language, in order to help my reader understand the importance of traveling abroad and being in actual contact with the language and its culture.
What are the considerations in selecting a research problem?
How are sources conventionally categorized? Briefly describe each category.
Primary Sources provide the "raw data" that you use first to test your working hypothesis and then as evidence to support your claim. Secondary sources, however, are research reports that use primary data to solve research problems, written for scholarly and professional audiences. Also, a secondary source becomes a primary source when you study its argument as part of a debate in a field. Finally, tertiary sources are books and articles that synthesize and report on secondary sources for general readers, such as textbooks, articles in encyclopedias and mass- circulation publications like Psychology Today, and what standard search engines turn up first on the Web.
What is the problem with using tertiary sources to support a scholarly argument? How can we solve this problem?
The problem lies in the fact that these sources tend to oversimplify the research, and their work usually dates quickly. Said problem can be solved by looking for more reliable sources in its bibliography.
Why is it important to be cautious when locating sources on the Internet?
It is important to be cautious because it has no gatekeepers. On the internet, most people post what they are passionate about or what will make them money, with no one to check their honesty or accuracy. So, knowing if a source is reliable or not becomes a needed task more so while using the net. There is no quick way of knowing if what you are reading is trustworthy without checking key points, like: where and how it was written, and definitely check who wrote it.
How are bibliographical trails useful for researchers? How can you take advantage of this?
Primarily because, when a book seems useful, you can skim its bibliography or works cited, and index listing the authors cited most often (generally, the more citations, the more important an author is), that way you get new - most likely - reliable sources. By following this bibliographic trail, you can navigate the most difficult research territory, because one source always leads to others.
How do you know if a source is reliable?
I will detail my understanding of the basic questions used to checked reliability.
- Is the source published or posted online by a reputable press? Meaning if the name behind the source is well-known for being trustworthy, like Harvard University, depending on the field one is researching.
- Was the book or article peer- reviewed? Meaning if someone respectable has said anything good about it. It should have at least one to be acknowledgeable.
- Is the author a reputable scholar? Meaning to check the author's background.
- If the source is available only online, is it sponsored by a reputable organization? Meaning that a web site is only as reliable as its sponsor.
- Is the source current? Meaning that depending on each field, one should check that the source is still valid to use.
- If the source is a book, does it have notes and a bibliography? If not, you have no way to follow up on anything the source claims.
- If the source is a Web site, does it include bibliographical data? Meaning that you cannot trust a source if you do not know who sponsors, controls, maintains, and updates it.
- If the source is a Web site, does it approach its topic judiciously? Meaning that one cannot use a source that uses inadequate language to express its point of view or that lacks credibility in any way.
- If the source is a book, has it been well reviewed? It goes to back the opinion and probable use of the book in a certain field.
- Has the source been frequently cited by others? Meaning to determine how influential the source has become.
Why do the authors suggest we need to take notes more carefully than we think?
What is your research question?
Research Question: How does studying a foreign language abroad impact or improve a student's level and use of the language?
Why is it important to record all bibliographical data before taking notes on a source?
How can you use secondary sources to plan your argument?
What does it mean to paraphrase?
When should you use exact quotations?
What is an Annotated Bibliography? How is it different from a Works Cited page?
How do you cite a book in the correct MLA format?
Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published. Print.
James, Henry. The Ambassadors. Rockville: Serenity, 2009. Print.
Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1942. Print.
how to cite within the text, and any general MLA formatting rules for research papers
How do you know if your sources are relevant and reliable?
What is a claim? How do you know if it is significant and specific?
1. What is the difference between a practical claim and a conceptual claim?
The main difference is that the practical claim explains the causes of the problem to later propose a feasible solution to the problem. However, the conceptual claim focuses on understanding the situation and decoding it in some way to use as information. Yes, it is more theoretical.
2. How can you evaluate your claim?
The claim must be both significant and specific.
3. How can you make sure your claim is specific? Why is this important?
You make it more specific through specific language and logic. It is important because vague claims lead to vague arguments. Yes, but what do you mean exactly by specific language and logic? There should be a more detailed answer here.
4. How can you make sure your claim is significant? Why is this important?
You measure significance by how it changes your community in its deepest beliefs. This is important because it contributes with its findings opening new lines of thinking. Yes, but again your answer should have more details.
What is your claim?
Studying a foreign language abroad has a significant impact on the level and use of the language, including variability dynamics relating to individual conditions.
How can you use a storyboard to plan your argument?
- What are the steps for sketching a working introduction?
- When do you quote directly from a text?
Take a look at your research paper
What is the difference between reasons and evidence?
Evidence is seen as a statement that must report a shared, public fact, meaning what readers agree not to question, at least for the purposes of the argument. However, a reason is one that readers may question with ease because of not having enough substantiated facts to form a bedrock of evidence.
How do you distinguish between evidence and reports of evidence?
Researchers cannot share real evidence with their readers, like showing them how many cars are driven in a city, which would be the material evidence in some study. The researcher may only report, refer or represent the quality and main implications of the real evidence by a report of evidence, like the number or percentage of cars that are driven in a city. The later uses words, number, tables, graphs, pictures and so on to specifically represent in a detail the evidence to the reader. This is done so the researcher can put the evidence in a form that serves the source's end, and put them in a new context in order to make them more coherent and understandable than what was actually counted or seen.
- How can you test the reliability of your evidence?
3.1 Report Evidence Accurately.
In order to convince and confront the skeptical reader, and whether your paper depends on data collected in a lab, in the field, in the library, or online, record that data completely and clearly, then double- check them before and after you write them up. Also, you can even use questionable evidence, if you acknowledge its dubious quality, and you may point to evidence that seems to support your claim but then reject it as unreliable so you show yourself to be cautious.
3.2 Be Appropriately Precise.
According to the standards of their fields, all evidence must be reported in an appropriately precise manner, leaving no space for ambiguity or confusion. One should watch for words like some, most, many, almost, often, usually, frequently, generally, and so on, as they can appropriately limit the breadth of a claim.
3.3 Provide Sufficient, Representative Evidence
Readers expect evidence to be representative of the full range of variation in what's available. So, whenever you use sample data, not only must your data be representative, but you must show that it is.
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