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44 terms

Chemistry Final

Lots of vocab words for chemistry! Grade 10
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ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
metallic bond
a chemical bond in which electrons are shared over many nuclei and electronic conduction occurs
chemical bond
an electrical force linking atoms
alloy
a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten
ions
electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
anion
a negatively charged ion
cation
a positively charged ion
oxyanion
a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen
anions
Negative charged ions
electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
interstitial alloys
atoms of a different element "fill in gaps" in between the original metal atoms.
oxidation
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
lattice energy
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
polyatomic ion
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
monatomic ion
an ion formed from a single atom
electron sea model
proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons, and can explain properties of metallic solids such as malleability, conduction, and ductility
properties of metals
shiny, ductile, good conductor of electric current, malleable, good conductor of thermal energy
sigma bond
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
pi bond
A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded atoms
endothermic
a description of a change in which a system absorbs energy from its surroundings
exothermic
chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat
resonance structures
Lewis structures that have the same arrangement of atoms in a molecule but differ in the distribution of electrons among the atoms.
oxyacids
acids that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element (usually a nonmetal)
hybridization
(genetics) the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids
octet rule
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons
lewis dot
consists of the symbol of an element and one dot for each valance electron in an atom of an element
bond
a connection that fastens things together
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
trigonal planar
an arrangement of atoms in the VSEPR model where the three pairs of electrons are placed 120 degrees apart on a flat plane.
electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound
coefficient
a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic
specator ions
ions present in solution that do not participate directly in reaction
reactant
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reactionf
aqueous solution
a solution in which the solvent is water
net ionic equation
includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution
complete ionic equation
an equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions
chemical equation
a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
replacement reaction
a chemical reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound, or when two elements in different compounds trade places
avogadro's number
number of representative particles in a mole, 6.02 X 10^23
mole
the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
hydrate
compound that has water chemically attached to its ions and written into its chemical formula
molar mass
The mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance.