86 terms

Period 3- Western Europe After Rome 400-1450 CE

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King Clovis
Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity C. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom
Charles Martel
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
Charlemagne
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Empress Wu
the only woman to rule China in her own name, expanded the empire and supported Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty.
Otto I
10th century ruler who became emperor of the German states through close ties with the Catholic church
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Franks
A Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul.
Carolingian Dynasty
A series of Frankish rulers including Pepin and Charlemagne lasting from 751 to 987
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Vikings
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western Europe from the eighth through the tenth century.
Norsemen
Vikings
Vinland
Newfoundland in Canada around 1000 (called Vinland because of the wild grapes) settled by Leif Ericsson
Magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
Normans
A member of a Viking people who raided and then settled in the French province later known as Normandy, and who invaded England in 1066
Venice
An Italian trading city on the Ariatic Sea, agreed to help the Byzantines' effort to regain the lands in return for trading privileges in Constantinople.
Battle of Tours
(732 CE) European victory over Muslims. It halted Muslim movement into Western Europe.
Estates-General
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France
estates
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners.
lay investiture controversy
disagreement between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII about who should appoint church officials; Henry eventually gets for forgiveness after excommunication
Magna Carta
A charter of liberty and political rights obtained from King John of England by his rebellious barons at Runnymede in 1215.
English Parliament
England's chief law-making body. It was a key institution in the development of representative democracy as it provided some voice and recognition of the rights and interests of various groups in society. It was involved in creating taxes and passing laws.
House of Lords
House of parliament made of up barons and clergy
House of Commons
the first legislative body of Parliament whose members are elected
Hundred Years' War
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
reconquista
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
Holy Land
The region of present-day Israel; includes the city of Jerusalem, which is a holy city to Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
Crusades
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
Knights Templar
"Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ"; Secretive group built to protect pilgrims on the road to the Holy Land; oldest of the Western Christian military orders
Teutonic Knights
Military Order founded by Crusaders from Germany
lords
A person of high rank who owned land but owed loyalty to his king
vassals
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
knights
Warriors who fought on horseback
feudalism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
serfs
A person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
squires
(in England) a country gentleman
bishops
Priests specially chosen by the Pope who are responsible for all the churches in a diocese
pope
Head of the Roman Catholic Church
priests
an ordained minister of the Catholic, Orthodox, or Anglican Church having the authority to perform certain rites and administer certain sacraments.
primogeniture
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
bourgeoisie
Middle class
burghers
Merchant class town dwellers
lay people
not ordained
dialects
Local or regional characteristics of a language. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary
vernacular languages
everyday speech that varies from place to place
University of Paris
university in France after which most Northern European universities were modeled
Oxford
English city with early medieval university following Bologna and Paris. (14.2)
Renaissance
"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Dante Alighieri
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
The Divine Comedy
written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and one of the greatest of world literature. Its influence is so great that it affects the Christian view of the afterlife to this day. The Divine Comedy is composed of three canticas, Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise). In the Inferno, Dante is led by the poet Virgil into the underworld, where he experiences and describes each of the nine circles of hell. The sign at the entrance to Hell reads: "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here."
Geoffrey Chaucer
wrote the Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales
the most famous work written in Middle English
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
In Praise of Folly
Erasmus criticized the weakness in human nature and its institutions sarcastically and skeptically in order to help humans better understand and improve themselves. Many thought it was too critical of the Catholic church and said it was the intellectual forerunner of the Reformation. Erasmus finally chose the Pope over Luther b/c he wanted to reform the Church from within, not start a new one.
Nicolaus Copernicus
A Polish astronomer who proved that the Ptolemaic system was inaccurate, he proposed the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the solar system.
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Vulgate Bible
Translation of the entire Old and New Testaments into Latin by St. Jerome
Thomas Aquinas
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Romanesque cathedrals
Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity. Small window
Gothic cathedrals
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows.
gargoyles
Grotesque flying statues at the roof of a church or cathedral, used as rain spouts.
flying buttresses
stone support on the outside of a building that allowed builders to construct higher walls and leave space for large stained-glass windows
Great Schism
in 1054 this severing of relations divided medieval Christianity into the already distinct Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively. Relations between East and West had long been embittered by political and ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes.
Donation of Constantine
This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Constantine the Great. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated
Babylonian Captivity
the long period of exile of the popes at Avignon
Cluniac Reforms
a it revived benedictine rule, declared that nobles weren't allowed to interfere in the monasteries, and it filled monasteries with religious men
religious orders
community of men/women who live and worship together and minister a community in a specific way-males are brothers or monks, females are nuns.
code of chivalry
a code of behavior that governed the aspect of all knights behavior
tournaments
contest where knights could fight; useful in helping knights train for war
jousts
fights with lances between two knights on horseback
Romanesque
a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between the Roman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD
manors
Large farm estates of the Middle Ages that were owned by nobles who ruled over the peasants living in the land
manorial system
an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
guilds
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
cartography
science or art of making maps
Marco Polo
(1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
longships
naval vessels made and used by the Vikings used of commerce, exploration, and warfare. Long and skinny made of wood. Bow and stern had pointed tips that pointed upward.
fiefs
pieces of land given to vassals by their lord
three-field system
A rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow. It gradually replaced two-field system in medieval Europe.
horse collar
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles.
Black Death
The common name for a major outbreak of plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
Otto I
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William the Conqueror
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