The Big Picture-Chapter 12
Terms in this set (56)
A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine), C (cytosine)
A (adenine), U (uracil), G (guanine), C (cytosine)
double helix, polymer, anti parallel, deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar), phosphate group, nitrogenous base
To store genetic information
Where: Nucleus(Eukaryotic Cells only)
Who: Enzymes(helicase, DNA polymerase, polymerase, primase, ligase)
How: Makes identical copies of DNA before cell division
"zipper"; an enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks
"builder"; enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
"initializer"; an enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template
"gluer"; an enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment; also called DNA ligase. This enzyme is usedd during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research
Modification of an organism's genes, artificial
Protein enzymes to carry out the chemical reactions needed for life
Transport proteins to move ions and molecules into and out of the cell and to move substances around inside the cell
The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
DNA makes RNA, RNA makes proteins, and proteins make us.
-DNA -> mRNA
-Process in which RNA is made from DNA
-Happens in the nucleus of eukaryotes and cytoplasm of prokaryotes
One strand of daughter double helix is parental and one is newly synthesized daughter DNA.
DNA is a polymer made of ________
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
the natural pairing of adenine and thymine, and cytosine and guanine
Why is it important that both copies of the DNA molecule have the exact same sequence of nucleotides as the original DNA molecule?
The mutation can lead to further problems in the future, if a cell divides and DNA duplicates again
What bond holds the bases together?
-done in fragments
-on lagging strands
-will be "glued"
-S phase of interphase
-Happens 5' to 3'
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
Chromosomes are made up of ________
Opens the strands AND creates complementary strands
-binding site before beginning of genes
-determines where transcription begins
-where the RNA stops adding bases during transcription
Strand that the RNA copies, the transcribed DNA strand
Strand not used for RNA copies
Stuff you want, coding sequence, genes that are expressed
Junk, non-coding sequence, in between exons
"taking the junk out"
Eukaryotic genes copy ________ during transcription
-mRNA -> amino acid
-long chain of nucleotides
-sugar in RNA is ribose
-contains uracil in place of thymine
3 nucleotides in a row that signifies an amino acid or start/stop sequence (set of 3 bases)
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA
Any change in genetic mutation
A change in 1 or few nucleotides
One base is added and causes a frameshift in the entire amino acid
One base is removed and causes a frameshift in the entire amino acid
One base is changed to another, usually only affects one amino acid
Region of DNA that controls RNA polymerase's access to a set of genes with related functions.
Proteins that control transcription (enhance or repress)
A protein that binds to an operator and physically blocks RNA polymerase from binding to a promoter site
Change in chromosomes
-Obtained from your parents
-Composed of nucleotides
-Factors that control traits
-All cells have the same DNA so some are turned off/on
-Only portions of DNA are used in different cells for different functions
Codes for proteins(enzymes) that break down lactose
protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide