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The building blocks, or subunits, of DNA and RNA; they include four types of nitrogen bases, which occur in two pairs.
The formation of specialized cells from less specialized parent cells through controlled gene expression.
Treating genetic disorders by introducing a gene into a cell or by directing a gene defect in a cell's genome.
Contains genes that have been artificially inserted into them instead of them acquiring them through reproduction.
Used to cure diseases, treat genetic disorders, improve food crops, improve lives of human.
Human Genome Project
Determined nucleotide sequence of entire human genome. Map location of every gene on chromosome. Compare human genome to other organisms genome.
States how evolution occurs. Organisms best suited to their environment reproduce more successfully than other organisms.
A diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
A close relationship between two or more different organisms that live together; each partner may either help, harm, or have no effect on the other partner.
Process by which a body of water becomes too rich in dissolved nutrients, leading to plant growth that depletes oxygen
Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
An increase in the average atmospheric temperature of Earth due to more heat-trapping CO2 in the air, which causes the "greenhouse effect"
Process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space
Prokaryotic. Unicellular, Asexual Reproduction, Heterotroph or Autotroph, Cilia, Flagella, Variety of environments. Harmful or beneficial.
Nonliving particle composed of a nucleic acid ad a protein coat. Causes diseases in living organisms.
Molecule that stimulates and immune response. Stimulate antibody generation. Made of proteins or polysaccharides.
Cannot kill a virus. Can also kill "good" bacteria. Proteins naturally found in the blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrate bodies. Used by immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects.
Harmless version of a virus. Antigenic preparation used to establish immunity from a disease. Can be prophylactic or therapeutic
A bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
A resistant wall in which bacterial replicate their DNA. It is able to survive trauma that the bacteria cannot.
Short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell
Division of an animal body along its length into a series of repeated parts called segments
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