Lab Biology Final Review

93 terms by kaikai10210

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The segments of DNA that contain the genetic information for a given trait or protein.


Nucleic Acid made of a double helix. Consists of three parts; sugar, phosphate & nitrogen base.


The building blocks, or subunits, of DNA and RNA; they include four types of nitrogen bases, which occur in two pairs.

Protein Synthesis

The process of making protein from amino acids.


Replicating DNA.


Messenger for protein synthesis. Single strand. mRNA


Making Polypeptides (Proteins) from info on mRNA. tRNA opposite to mRNA.

Amino Acid

Building blocks of Proteins




A group of organic compounds that are made up of chains of amino acids.

Gene Expression

Activation of a gene that results in the formation of a protein.


The formation of specialized cells from less specialized parent cells through controlled gene expression.


Change in form of an organism through cell differentiation.


Gene that causes cancer.


Uncontrolled growth of one or more cells.


Proteins that act as catalysts to increase the rate of chemical reactions in living things.

Restriction Enzyme

Create "sticky ends" on cut DNA segments. Can readily bind to other chains.

Recombinant DNA

Combination of DNA from 2+ sources.


Ring of DNA (found inside cloning vector)


Recombinant, Reproductive, Therapeutic.


Complete genetic material contained in an individual.

Gene Therapy

Treating genetic disorders by introducing a gene into a cell or by directing a gene defect in a cell's genome.

Transgenic Organism

Contains genes that have been artificially inserted into them instead of them acquiring them through reproduction.

DNA Fingerprint

Pattern of bands made up of specific fragment from an individual's DNA.

DNA Technology

Used to cure diseases, treat genetic disorders, improve food crops, improve lives of human.

Human Genome Project

Determined nucleotide sequence of entire human genome. Map location of every gene on chromosome. Compare human genome to other organisms genome.


All living things come from other living things.


Species evolve at a gradual, stable rate.

Punctuated Equilibrium

"Instant" change to a rather norm period of stability.

Charles Darwin

Mid 1800s proposed natural selection. The origin of species, 1859.


Mutually beneficial relationship.

Natural Selection

States how evolution occurs. Organisms best suited to their environment reproduce more successfully than other organisms.


Study of geographical distribution of fossils and of living organisms.


Discontinuation of a species.


Organisms being well suited to their environment.

Adaptive Advantage

A favorable trait in an organism

Divergent Evolution

Two or more related populations become more and more dissimilar.

Gene Flow

Genes moving from one population to another.


The formation of new species as a result of evolution

Phylogenic Tree

Family tree that shows the evolutionary relationship.


A diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms


The branch of science that deals with the classification of organisms.


Revised a system of grouping organisms into hierarchical categories.


Does not contain a nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles.


Contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

Common Ancestor

Shares same common ancestor. Homologous structures.





Biotic Factors

All living things in an environment

Abiotic Factors

All non living things in an environment.

Limiting Factor

The specific environmental requrements that can limit where an organism lives

Carrying Capacity

The size of a population that can be supported by an ecosystem.


Includes all biotic and abiotic factors that interact in a specific area.


All the individuals of the same species that live in the same area at one time.

Renewable Resources

Resource that can be renewed.


An organism's specific role in, or interaction with, its ecosystem; how an organism survives.


Organism who makes their own food.


Organism who has to eat food to obtain energy


Heterotrophic organisms that obtain their energy by feeding on decaying organisms.

Exponential Growth

Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

Logistic Growth

Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth


A close relationship between two or more different organisms that live together; each partner may either help, harm, or have no effect on the other partner.


Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship


The struggle between organisms for limited resources such as food and space.


Very large geographic areas that are characterized by a certain climate and ecosystem.

Trophic Level

The feeding levels through which energy flows in a food chain.

Food Chain

The direct transfer of energy form one organism to the next.

Food Web

The complex, interconnecting food chains in a community.


Process by which a body of water becomes too rich in dissolved nutrients, leading to plant growth that depletes oxygen

Biogeochemical Cycles

Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another

Global Warming

An increase in the average atmospheric temperature of Earth due to more heat-trapping CO2 in the air, which causes the "greenhouse effect"

Greenhouse Effect

Process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space


The preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources


Prokaryotic. Unicellular, Asexual Reproduction, Heterotroph or Autotroph, Cilia, Flagella, Variety of environments. Harmful or beneficial.


Nonliving particle composed of a nucleic acid ad a protein coat. Causes diseases in living organisms.


The ability to resist or prevent infection by a particular microbe


Maintaining internal stability.


Molecule that stimulates and immune response. Stimulate antibody generation. Made of proteins or polysaccharides.


Cannot kill a virus. Can also kill "good" bacteria. Proteins naturally found in the blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrate bodies. Used by immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects.


Harmless version of a virus. Antigenic preparation used to establish immunity from a disease. Can be prophylactic or therapeutic

Immune Response

A bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen


Harmful & will infect


Causes diseases


Special molecules that can move pieces of DNA from the cell of one organism to another


A resistant wall in which bacterial replicate their DNA. It is able to survive trauma that the bacteria cannot.


A small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)


Animal-like protist


Whip-like structure used for mobility


Short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell


Concentration of sensory organs at anterior end.


Body cavity in an organism, region where organs are located


Division of an animal body along its length into a series of repeated parts called segments


Stiff, flexible rod along back side of chordates.

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