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93 terms

Lab Biology Final Review

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Gene
The segments of DNA that contain the genetic information for a given trait or protein.
DNA
Nucleic Acid made of a double helix. Consists of three parts; sugar, phosphate & nitrogen base.
Nucleotide
The building blocks, or subunits, of DNA and RNA; they include four types of nitrogen bases, which occur in two pairs.
Protein Synthesis
The process of making protein from amino acids.
Replication
Replicating DNA.
Transcription
Messenger for protein synthesis. Single strand. mRNA
Translation
Making Polypeptides (Proteins) from info on mRNA. tRNA opposite to mRNA.
Amino Acid
Building blocks of Proteins
Polypeptide
Protein
Protein
A group of organic compounds that are made up of chains of amino acids.
Gene Expression
Activation of a gene that results in the formation of a protein.
Differentiation
The formation of specialized cells from less specialized parent cells through controlled gene expression.
Morphogenesis
Change in form of an organism through cell differentiation.
Oncogene
Gene that causes cancer.
Cancer
Uncontrolled growth of one or more cells.
Enzyme
Proteins that act as catalysts to increase the rate of chemical reactions in living things.
Restriction Enzyme
Create "sticky ends" on cut DNA segments. Can readily bind to other chains.
Recombinant DNA
Combination of DNA from 2+ sources.
Plasmid
Ring of DNA (found inside cloning vector)
Cloning
Recombinant, Reproductive, Therapeutic.
Genome
Complete genetic material contained in an individual.
Gene Therapy
Treating genetic disorders by introducing a gene into a cell or by directing a gene defect in a cell's genome.
Transgenic Organism
Contains genes that have been artificially inserted into them instead of them acquiring them through reproduction.
DNA Fingerprint
Pattern of bands made up of specific fragment from an individual's DNA.
DNA Technology
Used to cure diseases, treat genetic disorders, improve food crops, improve lives of human.
Human Genome Project
Determined nucleotide sequence of entire human genome. Map location of every gene on chromosome. Compare human genome to other organisms genome.
Biogenesis
All living things come from other living things.
Gradualism
Species evolve at a gradual, stable rate.
Punctuated Equilibrium
"Instant" change to a rather norm period of stability.
Charles Darwin
Mid 1800s proposed natural selection. The origin of species, 1859.
Endosymbiosis
Mutually beneficial relationship.
Natural Selection
States how evolution occurs. Organisms best suited to their environment reproduce more successfully than other organisms.
Biogeography
Study of geographical distribution of fossils and of living organisms.
Extinction
Discontinuation of a species.
Adaptation
Organisms being well suited to their environment.
Adaptive Advantage
A favorable trait in an organism
Divergent Evolution
Two or more related populations become more and more dissimilar.
Gene Flow
Genes moving from one population to another.
Speciation
The formation of new species as a result of evolution
Phylogenic Tree
Family tree that shows the evolutionary relationship.
Cladogram
A diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
Taxonomy
The branch of science that deals with the classification of organisms.
Linnaeus
Revised a system of grouping organisms into hierarchical categories.
Prokaryote
Does not contain a nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles.
Eukaryote
Contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Common Ancestor
Shares same common ancestor. Homologous structures.
Autotroph
Producers
Heterotroph
Consumers
Biotic Factors
All living things in an environment
Abiotic Factors
All non living things in an environment.
Limiting Factor
The specific environmental requrements that can limit where an organism lives
Carrying Capacity
The size of a population that can be supported by an ecosystem.
Ecosystem
Includes all biotic and abiotic factors that interact in a specific area.
Population
All the individuals of the same species that live in the same area at one time.
Renewable Resources
Resource that can be renewed.
Niche
An organism's specific role in, or interaction with, its ecosystem; how an organism survives.
Producer
Organism who makes their own food.
Consumer
Organism who has to eat food to obtain energy
Decomposer
Heterotrophic organisms that obtain their energy by feeding on decaying organisms.
Exponential Growth
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Logistic Growth
Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
Symbiosis
A close relationship between two or more different organisms that live together; each partner may either help, harm, or have no effect on the other partner.
Mutualism
Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
Competition
The struggle between organisms for limited resources such as food and space.
Biome
Very large geographic areas that are characterized by a certain climate and ecosystem.
Trophic Level
The feeding levels through which energy flows in a food chain.
Food Chain
The direct transfer of energy form one organism to the next.
Food Web
The complex, interconnecting food chains in a community.
Eutrophication
Process by which a body of water becomes too rich in dissolved nutrients, leading to plant growth that depletes oxygen
Biogeochemical Cycles
Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
Global Warming
An increase in the average atmospheric temperature of Earth due to more heat-trapping CO2 in the air, which causes the "greenhouse effect"
Greenhouse Effect
Process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space
Conservation
The preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
Bacteria
Prokaryotic. Unicellular, Asexual Reproduction, Heterotroph or Autotroph, Cilia, Flagella, Variety of environments. Harmful or beneficial.
Virus
Nonliving particle composed of a nucleic acid ad a protein coat. Causes diseases in living organisms.
Immunity
The ability to resist or prevent infection by a particular microbe
Homeostasis
Maintaining internal stability.
Antigen
Molecule that stimulates and immune response. Stimulate antibody generation. Made of proteins or polysaccharides.
Antibody
Cannot kill a virus. Can also kill "good" bacteria. Proteins naturally found in the blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrate bodies. Used by immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects.
Vaccine
Harmless version of a virus. Antigenic preparation used to establish immunity from a disease. Can be prophylactic or therapeutic
Immune Response
A bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
Infectious
Harmful & will infect
Pathogenic
Causes diseases
Vector
Special molecules that can move pieces of DNA from the cell of one organism to another
Endosphere
A resistant wall in which bacterial replicate their DNA. It is able to survive trauma that the bacteria cannot.
Cyst
A small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)
Protozoan
Animal-like protist
Flagella
Whip-like structure used for mobility
Cilia
Short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell
Cephalization
Concentration of sensory organs at anterior end.
Coelum
Body cavity in an organism, region where organs are located
Segmentation
Division of an animal body along its length into a series of repeated parts called segments
Notochord
Stiff, flexible rod along back side of chordates.