AP US History: Progressive
Terms in this set (51)
Period of explosive economic growth, primarily industrial, a large growth in population through immigration and the emergence of a consumer society
New York City
Largest U.S. city and the focal point of manufacturing and finance. Population exceeded 4.7 million.
Commission on Industrial Relations
In 1912 more than 1/3 of the nation's mining and manufacturing workers lived in "actual poverty."
George Bellows, John Sloan, Alfed Stieglitz, Edward Steichen
Painters and photographers that captured the youthful energies of the modern emerging economy.
A new breed of journalists that wrote for mass-circulation magazines such as McClures.
Shame of the Cities
Exposed the corruption of the political bosses and business leaders.
History of the Standard Oil Company
Exposed the ruthless business practices of John Rockefeller in building his oil empire.
Exposed the horrors of the meat packing industry in Chicago, but was meant to point out how immigrant values were corrupted by the exploitive forces of politics, business, and finance.
U.S. immigration 1901-1913
13 million immigrants came to the U.S., most from southern and eastern Europe, did not speak English, and were often Jewish or Catholic
Processed millions of immigrants who were out through an array of tests and examinations, many of which were quite humiliating.
Off the coast of San Francisco, Asian immigrants were processed there. Rigorous, often humiliating experiences of Ellis were repeated and often worse.
Generally held low-paying jobs and worked long hours in unsafe working conditions.
Sewing machines, vaccum cleaners, and phonographs
Purchased by those whose incomes let them do so by 1910
Most popular entertainment in the early part of 20th century, consisted of singers, dancers, jugglers, acrobats, and animal acts.
Pictures shows that cost a nickel to attend.
Triangle Factory fire
Demonstrated the horrible conditions under which many immigrant woman labored.
Mary Calkins Whiten
Became the first female head of the American Psychological Association in 1906
Women and Economics
Pointed out that the path to female emancipation went directly through the work place.
Developed the auto assembly line, the symbol of the new consumer society
Turned Ford Motor Company into the dominate force in auto manufacturing
Enabled cats to be mass-produced and sold much more cheaply.
Living wage/American Standard of Living
Phrases with which to criticize the inequalities in American industrial society.
A Living Wage
Argued that economic relationships should be governed by moral standards.
Three definitions of Progressivism
1) Break up big businesses and replace them with the small businesses of the past
2) Accepted the reality of big business but wanted government to regulate it in a way that would reduce economic inequalities.
3) Viewed Progressivism as a means of personal fulfillment and greater self-expression.
Standard fare for manufacturing and essential for managers to insist upon very strict standards of work
Samuel Gompers on Scientific Management
"Men and women cannot live during the working hours under autocratic conditions and instantly become sons and daughters of freedom as they step outside the shop gates"
Argued that workers should be given a voice in establishing wages, working conditions, and even in such decisions as plant relocation, layoffs and distribution of profits.
Advocated such radical ideas as free college education, worker-friendly legislation and ultimately government control over the instruments of production, distribution, and exchange
Provided aid to the unemployed, forced the police to recognize the rights of strikers and won over many middle class voters because of its honesty and rejection of traditional corruption-ridden boss politics.
Eugene V. Debs
Most important socialist of the Progressive era was the former head of the American Railway Union.
Industrial Workers of the World
Accepted any workers regardless of job, ethnicity, race, or gender
A walkout of 20,000 garment workers in NY's garment district. The first of a series of mass strikes whose common theme was the right of eorkersbto collectively bargain
Lawrence Textile Strike
Reaction to wage cuts, called in IWW to provide them help
Big Bill Haywood
Founder of the IWW
"I don't think we love in a free country or enjoy civil liberties."
Defined women's expression for more freedom
An act passed in 1873 that said birth control was illegal
Leading feminist on the issue of birth control
What Every Girl Should Know
Column on sex education, postal service refused to send it
The Society of American Indians
Brought together Indian intellectuals from many different tribes
Instituted reforms such as establishing a municipal power plant. Forced gas and telephone companies to lower their rates
Instituted the right hour day at his factory in Toledo and provided paid vacations for workers in his oil drilling company
Turned Wisconsin into a laboratory for Progressivism
Provided direct election for senators
Janes Addams/Hull House
Moved into impoverished neighborhoods where they attempted to help the poor by establishing employment bureau's, kindergartens, and playgrounds.
First woman to head a federal agency
Led the National Consumer's League to become the most important advocate for women and children
Muller vs. Oregon
Cited sociological and scientific studies "proving" women were weaker than men