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126 terms

Lab Pro Erythrocytes

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canine
These erythrocytes are from what species?
feline
These erythrocytes are from what species?
Rouleaux formation
What is the name of this cell arrangement?
Agglutination
What is the name of this cell arrangement?
Polychromasia
What is the term for the coloring of these cells?
Hypochromasia
What is the term for the coloring of these cells?
Hyperchromasia
What is the term for the coloring of these cells?
Anisocytosis
What is the term for the size of these cells?
Macrocytosis
What term do you use to describe the cells on the left compared to the ones on the right (normal)
Microcytosis
What term do you use to describe the smaller cells?
Schistocyte
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Acanthocytes
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Echinoctyes
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Drepanocytes
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Pre-keratocytes
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Keratocyte
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Spherocytes
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Dacryocytes
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Folded Cells
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Stomatocytes
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Target Cells
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Nucleated Red Blood Cells
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Basophilic Stippling
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Howell-Jolly Bodies
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Heinz Bodies
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Reticulocytes
What type of erythrocyte is this?
Erythropoiesis
What is the process of maturation of a RBC?
Cytokine
RBC are fromed by stem cells through an action of the
Erythropoietin
RBC production through the action of cytokine is called
5 days
Maturation of a RBC takes about
110 days
Dog erythrocyte life span is
68 days
Cat erythrocyte life span is
nucleus
RBCs have no what?
cell arrangement
color
size
shape
presence of structures
What are the 5 ways erythrocytes are classified?
nice even single layer on the outermost edge of a blood film
How should normal RBC's been seen on a blood slide?
rouleaux formation
What is a grouping of RBC's in stacks?
increased fibrinogen or globulin concentration
What does rouleaux formation a sign of?
held too long before preparation of blood slide or refriderated
Rouleaux formation can be an artifact if
drop of saline
What can break up a rouleaux formation?
immune mediated disorders
What is a possible disorder causing agglutination?
an antibody coats the cell causing clumping
What causes cells to stick together in agglutination
normochromic
RBCs that are normally colored are called
polychromasia
RBC's that have a variation in color are called
hyperchromasia or hypochromasia
What are the 2 different polychromasia?
bluish
Polychromasia erythrocytes exhibit a ____ tint.
reticulocytes
What may polychromasia erythrocytes resemble?
hypochromasia
What is a reduction in color of RBC's called?
hyperchromasia
What is a darker than normal RBC called?
insufficient hemoglobin within the cell
iron deficiency
What causes hypochromasia?
No - because RBC have a fixed capacity
Can true hyperchromasia exist?
MCHC
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
What describes cells as normochromatic or hypochromatic?
31% - 36%
What is normal MCHC?
normocytes
Erythrocytes of normal size are called
anisocytosis
What is the name for the variation in size of erythrocytes?
macrocytic
microcytic
What are the names for small and large erythrocytes?
anemia
What is anisocytosis and indicator of?
liver disease
vitamine B12 deficiency
What is macrocytosis an indicator of?
iron deficiency
What is microcytosis an indicator of?
MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)
What is the measurement of the average volume of RBCs?
66-77 femtolitres (fL)
What is a normal MCV?
Poikilocytosis
What is the term for variation in shape of a erythrocyte?
artificially created
What does the term artifact mean?
diagnosis
poikilocytosis is NOT a
schistocytes
What are fragmented cells called?
fibrin strands
Schistocytes are formed as a result of shearing of the cell by
acanthocyte
What are spur cells called?
acanthocyte
These poikilocytes 5-10 irregular blunt fingerlike projects that vary in width, length and surface distribution
ancanthocyte
These poikilocytes are seen in animals with altered
lipid metabolism (cats w/hepaticlipidosis or dogs w/liver disease)
echinocytes
What are burr cells called?
echinocytes
These poikilocytes have multiple small delicate regularly shaped spines that are evenly distributed around the cell
echinocytes
This poikilocyte formation can be artificial, often seen with slow drying blood films or if EDTA tube was underfilled thus termed crenation.
renal disease, lymphosarcoma and rattle snake bites in dogs
Echinocytes have been associated with what disorders?
horses
Echinocytes can also be seen after exercise in this animal
crenation
Identified as the presence of many irregular membrane projection involving most RBCs. It is also a artifact due to slow drying of the blood film
pig
Crenation is often observed in the blood of this animal
drepanocytes
What are sickle cells called?
drepanocytes
These poikilocytes are cresent shapped
goats and deer
Drepanocytes are often seen in normal blood of what animals?
low oxygen tension
Drepanocytes are thought to be the result of
pre-keratocytes
Poikilocytes cells with pseudovacuoles called blisters cells are called
keratocyte
What are helmet cells called?
cellular damage from trauma (fibrin strands)
What causes keratocytes?
spherocytes
Poikilocytes that have a spheroid shape (central pallor is missing)
hyperchromatic
Spherocytes have reduced cell membrane and are
spherocytes
Which poikilocyte is seen as a result of AIHA (auto immune hemolytic anemia)?
dogs
What animal are spherocytes seen in?
dacryocytes
What are tear drop cells called?
myeloproliferative
Dacryocytes are seen in what diseases?
artifact
If the direction of the tails of dacryocytes are all in the same direction what are they?
codocytes
This is an umbrella term describing cells that have an increased membrane surface area
folded cells
stomatocytes
target cells
What are the 3 types of codocytes?
folded cell
This codocyte resembles a coin slot
stomatocytes
This codocyte resembles a smiling mouth
folded cells &
stomatocytes
Which codocytes are associated with a hereditary condition but also seen in liver disease and electrolyte imbalance
dogs
In which animal are target cells observed?
target cells
Which codocyte has thin bell-shaped cells?
liver disease or hemoglobinopathies
What may target cells indicate?
if made in high humidity or if blow dry
When may target cells be seen as an artifact?
nRBC
Basophilic Stippling
Howell jolly Bodies
Heinz Bodies
Reticulocytes
What are the 5 structures that may be present on/in erythrocytes?
nRBC
Which erythrocyte structure looks like a fried egg?
early release of immature RBC during anemia
Why are nRBCs usually seen?
Basophilic Stippling
Which erythrocyte structure shows up as blue freckles?
cases of heavy metal poisoning
non-regenerative anemia
intense erythrogenesis in dogs, cats & ruminants
When can basophilic stipping be seen?
cats and horses
What animal are howell-jolly bodies seen?
regenerative anemic animals
splenic disease or spleen removed
Why may howell-jolly bodies be seen?
heinz bodies
Which structure on erythrocytes is a result of particles of denature hemoglobin protein?
stain blue with new methylene blue or appear
clear adn colorless with quick stain
How are heinz bodies detected on a cell?
onion or acetaminophen toxicity
What may cause heinz bodies in dogs?
cats - blood may have 2% - 3%
What animal is heinz bodies common in?
reticulocytes
What are immature RBCs that contain organelles that are lost in the mature cell?
aggregate and punctate
What are the two types of reticulocytes?
24 hours
How quickly do the aggregate form of reticulocytes mature into the punctate form?
cats
Punctate reticulocytes are unique to what animal?
7-10 days
punctate reticulocytes circulate how long before all the reticulum are lost?
reticulocytes in the peripheral blood
What is a hallmark of erythrocyte regenerative response?
then the body is not producing new younger cells (aggregate)
If you only see punctate (older cells) then what does that mean?
a condition of reduce oxygen carrying capacity of erythrocytes
What is anemia?
decreased production of RBCs
increased destruction of RBCs
Inappropriate loss of RBCs
What are the 3 things erythrocyte disorders may be associated with?
good history
P.E.
CBC
blood film/smear
What should a systemic, diagnostic approach to anemia include?
correcting the primary disorder &
supporting the patient
What should the treatment of anemia be aimed at?
regenerative or nonregenerative
What is important to establish about an anemia diagnosis?
hemorage or hemolysis
Regenerative anemias are usually the result of what?
issue with the bone marrow
What may non-regenerative anemia involve?
bone marrow
What is involved in myeloproliferative disorders?
regenerative anemia
What will show reticulocytes, nRBCs, polychromasia, anisocytosis and howell-jolly bodies?
the bone marrow has responded to a demand for RBC by increasing production and releasing into circulation increased #s of immature RBCs
What does regenerative anemia indicate?