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These erythrocytes are from what species?


These erythrocytes are from what species?

Rouleaux formation

What is the name of this cell arrangement?


What is the name of this cell arrangement?


What is the term for the coloring of these cells?


What is the term for the coloring of these cells?


What is the term for the coloring of these cells?


What is the term for the size of these cells?


What term do you use to describe the cells on the left compared to the ones on the right (normal)


What term do you use to describe the smaller cells?


What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?

Folded Cells

What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?

Target Cells

What type of erythrocyte is this?

Nucleated Red Blood Cells

What type of erythrocyte is this?

Basophilic Stippling

What type of erythrocyte is this?

Howell-Jolly Bodies

What type of erythrocyte is this?

Heinz Bodies

What type of erythrocyte is this?


What type of erythrocyte is this?


What is the process of maturation of a RBC?


RBC are fromed by stem cells through an action of the


RBC production through the action of cytokine is called

5 days

Maturation of a RBC takes about

110 days

Dog erythrocyte life span is

68 days

Cat erythrocyte life span is


RBCs have no what?

cell arrangement
presence of structures

What are the 5 ways erythrocytes are classified?

nice even single layer on the outermost edge of a blood film

How should normal RBC's been seen on a blood slide?

rouleaux formation

What is a grouping of RBC's in stacks?

increased fibrinogen or globulin concentration

What does rouleaux formation a sign of?

held too long before preparation of blood slide or refriderated

Rouleaux formation can be an artifact if

drop of saline

What can break up a rouleaux formation?

immune mediated disorders

What is a possible disorder causing agglutination?

an antibody coats the cell causing clumping

What causes cells to stick together in agglutination


RBCs that are normally colored are called


RBC's that have a variation in color are called

hyperchromasia or hypochromasia

What are the 2 different polychromasia?


Polychromasia erythrocytes exhibit a ____ tint.


What may polychromasia erythrocytes resemble?


What is a reduction in color of RBC's called?


What is a darker than normal RBC called?

insufficient hemoglobin within the cell
iron deficiency

What causes hypochromasia?

No - because RBC have a fixed capacity

Can true hyperchromasia exist?

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

What describes cells as normochromatic or hypochromatic?

31% - 36%

What is normal MCHC?


Erythrocytes of normal size are called


What is the name for the variation in size of erythrocytes?


What are the names for small and large erythrocytes?


What is anisocytosis and indicator of?

liver disease
vitamine B12 deficiency

What is macrocytosis an indicator of?

iron deficiency

What is microcytosis an indicator of?

MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)

What is the measurement of the average volume of RBCs?

66-77 femtolitres (fL)

What is a normal MCV?


What is the term for variation in shape of a erythrocyte?

artificially created

What does the term artifact mean?


poikilocytosis is NOT a


What are fragmented cells called?

fibrin strands

Schistocytes are formed as a result of shearing of the cell by


What are spur cells called?


These poikilocytes 5-10 irregular blunt fingerlike projects that vary in width, length and surface distribution


These poikilocytes are seen in animals with altered
lipid metabolism (cats w/hepaticlipidosis or dogs w/liver disease)


What are burr cells called?


These poikilocytes have multiple small delicate regularly shaped spines that are evenly distributed around the cell


This poikilocyte formation can be artificial, often seen with slow drying blood films or if EDTA tube was underfilled thus termed crenation.

renal disease, lymphosarcoma and rattle snake bites in dogs

Echinocytes have been associated with what disorders?


Echinocytes can also be seen after exercise in this animal


Identified as the presence of many irregular membrane projection involving most RBCs. It is also a artifact due to slow drying of the blood film


Crenation is often observed in the blood of this animal


What are sickle cells called?


These poikilocytes are cresent shapped

goats and deer

Drepanocytes are often seen in normal blood of what animals?

low oxygen tension

Drepanocytes are thought to be the result of


Poikilocytes cells with pseudovacuoles called blisters cells are called


What are helmet cells called?

cellular damage from trauma (fibrin strands)

What causes keratocytes?


Poikilocytes that have a spheroid shape (central pallor is missing)


Spherocytes have reduced cell membrane and are


Which poikilocyte is seen as a result of AIHA (auto immune hemolytic anemia)?


What animal are spherocytes seen in?


What are tear drop cells called?


Dacryocytes are seen in what diseases?


If the direction of the tails of dacryocytes are all in the same direction what are they?


This is an umbrella term describing cells that have an increased membrane surface area

folded cells
target cells

What are the 3 types of codocytes?

folded cell

This codocyte resembles a coin slot


This codocyte resembles a smiling mouth

folded cells &

Which codocytes are associated with a hereditary condition but also seen in liver disease and electrolyte imbalance


In which animal are target cells observed?

target cells

Which codocyte has thin bell-shaped cells?

liver disease or hemoglobinopathies

What may target cells indicate?

if made in high humidity or if blow dry

When may target cells be seen as an artifact?

Basophilic Stippling
Howell jolly Bodies
Heinz Bodies

What are the 5 structures that may be present on/in erythrocytes?


Which erythrocyte structure looks like a fried egg?

early release of immature RBC during anemia

Why are nRBCs usually seen?

Basophilic Stippling

Which erythrocyte structure shows up as blue freckles?

cases of heavy metal poisoning
non-regenerative anemia
intense erythrogenesis in dogs, cats & ruminants

When can basophilic stipping be seen?

cats and horses

What animal are howell-jolly bodies seen?

regenerative anemic animals
splenic disease or spleen removed

Why may howell-jolly bodies be seen?

heinz bodies

Which structure on erythrocytes is a result of particles of denature hemoglobin protein?

stain blue with new methylene blue or appear
clear adn colorless with quick stain

How are heinz bodies detected on a cell?

onion or acetaminophen toxicity

What may cause heinz bodies in dogs?

cats - blood may have 2% - 3%

What animal is heinz bodies common in?


What are immature RBCs that contain organelles that are lost in the mature cell?

aggregate and punctate

What are the two types of reticulocytes?

24 hours

How quickly do the aggregate form of reticulocytes mature into the punctate form?


Punctate reticulocytes are unique to what animal?

7-10 days

punctate reticulocytes circulate how long before all the reticulum are lost?

reticulocytes in the peripheral blood

What is a hallmark of erythrocyte regenerative response?

then the body is not producing new younger cells (aggregate)

If you only see punctate (older cells) then what does that mean?

a condition of reduce oxygen carrying capacity of erythrocytes

What is anemia?

decreased production of RBCs
increased destruction of RBCs
Inappropriate loss of RBCs

What are the 3 things erythrocyte disorders may be associated with?

good history
blood film/smear

What should a systemic, diagnostic approach to anemia include?

correcting the primary disorder &
supporting the patient

What should the treatment of anemia be aimed at?

regenerative or nonregenerative

What is important to establish about an anemia diagnosis?

hemorage or hemolysis

Regenerative anemias are usually the result of what?

issue with the bone marrow

What may non-regenerative anemia involve?

bone marrow

What is involved in myeloproliferative disorders?

regenerative anemia

What will show reticulocytes, nRBCs, polychromasia, anisocytosis and howell-jolly bodies?

the bone marrow has responded to a demand for RBC by increasing production and releasing into circulation increased #s of immature RBCs

What does regenerative anemia indicate?

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