48 terms

AP Human Geography Unit 7.2

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agribuisness
a large corporation buys and controls different steps in the food industry with a set of economical and political processes (rather than just production, controls distribution and processing)
commodity chains (food chains)
a network of labor and production processes beginning with the extraction of raw materials to delivery, composed of 5 connected sections
1. inputs
2. production
3. processing
4. distribution
5. consumption
effect on small family farms
farmers have guaranteed market as long as the product meets standards, (uniform, delivery timeline) but poor farmers cannot afford investment in crops (such as seeds and fertilizers) and get contracted to large corporations
effect on cultivation regions
multi-cropping is replaced by monoculture, land is cleared and vegetation is lost, erosion because of chemical use, loss of security because of monoculture, lack of native crops
vertical organization of agriculture
blending of quaternary, tertiary, secondary, and primary activity because small family farms get taken over by large companies and then they control all aspects of the supply chain, long term and fast adjustments
global supply chains
the continuous buying and selling of goods and services, covers all the steps needed to get a good or service from supplier to consumer
patterns of global food distribution are affected by political systems
because of the internal problems going on within a country such as war or human rights issues, this can influence the distribution of agricultural products throughout the world or international trading

ex: Cadbury and Nestle get up to 30% of their cocoa form the Ivory Coast, which is experiencing internal strife, this can interfere with the profits of the companies as well as the countries
patterns of global food distribution are affected by infrastructure
in some LDC's the lack of needed infrastructure such as technology or reliable roads, make it difficult to move food around the country- and even more difficult to move it around the world in order to make a profit from these products
patterns of global food distribution are affected by patterns of world trade
while trade agreements can increase the distribution of food by making an alliance between countries in order to trade, embargoes can make it more difficult to distribute agricultural products because of the ban on trade or commercial activity with a certain country
the 3rd agricultural revolution
began in the late 19th century and picked up speed throughout the 20th century with each of the 3 phases starting from North America

1. mechanization-the increase of the use of machines in agriculture
2. chemical farming-the use of pesticides and fertilizers became widespread in 1950's America and then spread to Europe in the 1960's and the periphery countries in 1970
3. globally widespread food manufacturing-the adding of value to agricultural products through refining, packaging, and processing
green revolution
this term refers to the changes in agricultural production with high yield varieties ("miracle" seeds, ex: wheat and rice)
positive consequences of the green revolution
-increased food production
-reduction of world hunger
negative consequences of the green revolution
-environmental damage from pesticide, fertilizer, and irrigation use
-costs of technology and seeds
high-yield seeds (HYV's)
seeds that were bred to respond to fertilizers to increase the amount of grain per acre, the use of these decreased the amount of seed varieties being used, increased fertilizer use, and increased irrigation

ex: wheat, rice, and maize
hybrid seeds
the result of cross pollinating to different but related plants in order to create a plant that would withstand things such as weather, soil, and predator insects
increased chemical and mechanized farming
the replacement of human labor with machines and machines (tractors, combines, reapers) as well as the addition of chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides
agricultural policy
the government can make policies to make it more favorable to grow crops

ex: subsidies and protective tariffs
subsidies
a form of government sponsored financial aid to support an industry or program, these are used in agriculture so that the government can influence crop production and stabilize crop prices

the government will give a farmer money to offset the initial cost of the crops, if the farmer takes advantage of this they have to obey the rules set by the USDA (US Department of Agriculture) if the farmer doesn't follow the rules they get it taken away from them
farm crisis
an event or situation that decreases farm profits dramatically

ex: natural disasters-frosts, droughts, floods
man made-overworking the land, war
hunger crisis/famine
food shortages from natural or human causes
malnutrition
the prolonged unbalanced diet without proper nutrition, common in LDC's
factors affecting the location of food processing facilities: markets
the concept of the Von Thunen model with the correlation of the product to the market

ex: specialized crops need to be close to the market in order to insure profitability
factors affecting the location of food processing facilities: economies of scale
more produced=cheaper production cost, there are some areas where transportation and operating costs are too expensive to make a profit
factors affecting the location of food processing facilities: transportation
some factors (ex: perishability) of the product affects the cost of transportation
factors affecting the location of food processing facilities: government policies
subsidies can affect location by making it more attractive to be located in a certain area

ex: a processing facility that gets low taxes they might be persuaded to move to that particular town
biotechnology
the technology for the manipulation of living organisms or their components to produce useful products
genetically modifies organisms (GMO's)
an organism who has required one or more genes by artificial means using DNA technology (about 60-70% of food products in the US)
debate over: biotechnology
concerns
-consumption of GM products could reduce effectiveness antibiotics
-could destroy ecological balance of agriculture
-GM products could interbreed and contaminate natural food supplies or the environment
debate over: genetically modifies organisms
concerns
-strong opposition to GMO products in some countries combined with the excessive use of them in other countries could lead to a lack of trade
-some believe it isn't as nutritious
-constantly having to buy the seeds from transnational countries
debate over: organic farming
concerns
-little effect on the production of staple foods
-standards and sustainability
-pricing out of small farms
debate over: aquaculture
concerns
-water pollution from fish waste
-the transfer of disease to wild fish
-genetic damage to wild fish from the genetically altered fish that have escaped
spatial patterns of dietary laws
some regions have food preferences because of dietary laws involving religion

ex: the sale of pork and alcohol is illegal in Iran because of Sharia Law
organic farming
no genetic modifications, pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic hormones, or artificial fertilizers- this can bring higher prices but is more costly to grow
fair trade
giving farmers fair prices for their products to create safe working conditions, provide a decent living wage, and guarantees the right to organize
value-added specialty foods
there is processing and specialty growth leading to the increased cost

ex: wine, special cheeses, smoked/dried meats
regional appelations
foods associated with a local or regional geographic name for the product

ex: champagne
eat-local food movements
the support of local restaurants buying from local farmers therefor minimizing the distance between the producer and consumption, reduces fossil fuel use, air pollution and green house gas emmisions
biorevolution
the extension of scientific innovation (GM's and biotechnology) to all plant and animal products
feedlots
places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing, often referred to as factory farms.
luxury crops
crops that are considered nonessential and non subsistence

ex: cocao, coffee, tea, tobacco
cattle ranching/livestock ranching
extensive land use in areas for the raising of animals, typically in places that it is too harsh to grow crops
mediterranean cropping/agriculture
the mediterranean has a warmer year round climate as well as less precipitation in areas that grow corn and rice, good for growing things like dates, olives, grapes, citrus fruits, and almonds
market gardening/truck farm
a form of commercial agriculture where produce is grown at a small scale and sold to a local consumer, located in zone 1 of the Von Thunen model
horticulture and fruit farming
intensively grown high value crops
aquaculture
raising fish and other aquatic animals
dikhatpura case study
...
food deserts
areas in which people live that they do not have access to fresh nutritious food, typically found in low income neighborhoods where grocery stores are largely absent instead there are small convenient stores with processed food
changing role of women in agriculture
core countries

periphery countries