49 terms

IB Biology : Option A (Neurobiology)

this includes SL and HL material. first exams in May 2016
STUDY
PLAY
Neural tube
- develops by neurulation
- elongates as embryo grows
- develops in first month of gestation (humans)
Neurulation
development of a dorsal nerve cord at an early stage in development in chordates
Neural pruning
removal of dendrites and axon branches from some neurons
Medulla oblongata
controls autonomic activities e.g. swallowing, digestions, vomiting, breathing, heart rate
Cerebellum
coordinates unconscious functions e.g. posture, non-voluntary movement, balance
Hypothalamus
maintains homeostasis via coordination of nervous and endocrine systems, synthesizes hormones secreted by pituitary gland
Pituitary gland
Posterior stores and releases hormones produced by hypothalamus.
Anterior produces and releases hormones that regulate many body functions
Cerebral hemispheres
Integration center for highly complex functions (higher order functions) e.g. learning, memory, emotion
Sympathetic nervous system
prepares body for "fight or flight"
Parasympathetic nervous system
involved in processes when body is relaxed
Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic NS + Parasympathetic NS
Photoreceptors in the eye
Rod and cone cells
Lens
changes focal distance of eye by changing shape
Aqueous humor
provides nutrition to cornea and lens
Pupil
regulates amount of light that enters the eye
Iris
regulates light levels that enter eye
Cornea
protects the eye
Vitreous humor
fills space between lens and retina. keeps shape of eye
Sclera
tough protective layer around eye
Choroid
absorbs light in the eye
Retina
at back of eye. contains photosensitive cells.
Fovea
NOT NECESSARY TO KNOW FUNCTION
employed for accurate vision
Blind spot
no photoreceptors in this area
Optic nerve
transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain
Pinna
collects sound
Ear drum
separates outer ear from middle ear, transmits sound from the air to the ossicles in middle ear
Mallus, incus, stapes
ossicles, transmit vibrations from eardrum to inner ear through oval window, amplify sound
oval and round window
flexible tissues that allow fluid to move through cochlea and transmit vibrations to hair cells
Cochlea
transforms the vibrations into a neural signal through tiny hair cells
Semicircular canals
detect movement of the head
Auditory nerve
transfers auditory information from inner ear to brain
Innate behavior
is inherited and develops independently from environment
Learned behavior
new patterns of behavior as a result of experience
Reflexes
autonomic and involuntary responses
Reflex arcs
sequence of neurons linking receptor to effector
Reflex conditioning
forming new associations
Imprinting
learning occurring at particular life stage and is independent of consequences of behavior
Operant conditioning
form of learning which consists of trial and error
Learning
acquisition of skill or knowledge
Memory
process of encoding, storing and accessing information
Excitatory neurotransmitter
excite nerve impulses in post-synaptic membranes
Inhibitory neurotransmitter
inhibits action potentials in post-synaptic membranes
Summation
the additive effect of excitatory neurotransmitter
Examples of excitatory drugs
nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines
Examples of inhibitory drugs
THC, alcohol, benzodiazepines
Anaesthetics
interfere with neural transmission between receptors and central nervous system
Stimulants
promote activity of sympathetic nervous system
3 factors for drug addiction
genetic predisposition, social environment, chasing the high
Ethology
the study of animal behavior in natural conditions
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