122 terms

ESC1000 Chapter 3 Rocks

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element
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means
atom
The smallest particle that can exist as an element
molecule
2 or more atoms joined together
compound
A molecule comprised of two or more elements
mineral
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid (at normal earth temperatures) with a repeating crystalline structure and definite chemical composition.
CaCO3
What is the chemical formula of the mineral that is an exception to the standard definition of a mineral because it is made by organisms?
calcium carbonate
chemical name of calcite
calcite
The mineral name of CaCO3
rock
Any naturally occurring solid mass composed of one or more minerals
oxygen (47%)
8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: _______, silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium.
silicon (28%)
8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , _______, aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium.
aluminum (8.1%)
8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), _______, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium.
iron
8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), _______, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium.
calcium
8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, _______, sodium, potassium, magnesium.
sodium
8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, _______, potassium, magnesium.
potassium
8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, sodium, _______, magnesium.
magnesium
8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, _______.
47
Percentage of oxygen in rocks of the earth's crust
28
Percentage of silicon in rocks of the earth's crust
8.1
Percentage of aluminum in rocks of the earth's crust
90
Percentage of rocks in the crust made of silicates
feldspars
The most common group of silicates in the earth's surface
quartz
The second most common silicate in the earth's surface
non-silicates
Term for rocks that do not contain silicon and oxygen.
luster
Term for the quality or appearance of light reflected from the surface of a rock.
metallic and non metallic
The two major categories of luster used in rock identification.
vitreous
Term for the type of luster that is shiny like glass or colored glass.
light and dark
The two major categories of color used in rock identification.
cleavage
Term for the shape of the broken crystals in a rock.
effervescence
Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that reacts with acid.
elasticity
Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can flex and return to its original form.
malleability
Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can be permanently deformed
refraction
Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can reflect light internally in a way that produces two images.
radioactivity
Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can make a Geiger counter tick.
fluorescence
Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that will glow under black light.
conchoidal fracture
Term for the cleavage that broken glass has.
streak
The color of a mineral in powdered form
hardness
Term for how hard a mineral is on Moh's hardness scale, which indicates how strongly the atoms are bonded together
1 to 10
Range of Moh's hardness scale
2.5
Hardness score of fingernail on Moh's hardness scale
3.5
Hardness score of a penny on Moh's hardness scale
5.5
Hardness score of glass on Moh's hardness scale
6.5
Hardness score of a streak plate on Moh's harness scale.
10
Hardness score of diamond on Moh's hardness scale
specific gravity
How heavy a sample is compared to the mass of an equal volume of water
1
Specific gravity of water
igneous
Category of rock that forms by the cooling of magma
sedimentary
Category of rock that is formed from the weathered products of pre-existing rocks that have been transported, deposited and lithified.
metamorphic
Category of rock that is formed by the alteration of pre-existing rocks, primarily through the action of heat and/or pressure (but without melting)
magma
Term for molten rock below the earth's surface, including dissolved gases.
crystallization
Term for the process of cooling magma.
cooling rate
Factor that determines the size of crystals in a mineral.
slow
Cooling rate of magma that produces larger crystals.
rapid
Cooling rate of magma that produces smaller crystals
extremely rapid
Cooling rate of magma that produces no crystals, like glass.
extrusive
Category of igneous rock that forms above the surface
small
Size of crystals in extrusive igneous rocks
large
Size of crystals in intrusive igneous rocks
intrusive
Category of igneous rock that forms beneath the surface.
texture and composition
Characteristics used to classify igneous rocks.
texture
Characteristic that describes the overall appearance of an igneous rock, generally based on the size of crystals.
composition
Characteristic that describes what rocks are made of, based on the constituents of the magma.
fine-grained
Texture of extrusive rocks with crystals that are invisible to the naked eye.
vesicles
Term for the bubbles in igneous rocks produced by dissolved gases.
coarse grained
Texture of intrusive rocks with visible crystals.
porphyritic
Term for the texture of igneous rocks with visible crystals in a fine-grained matrix.
glassy
Term for the texture of rocks with no crystals, but may have vesicles.
dark
Color of silicates that are relatively low in silica
light
Color of silicates that are relatively high in silica.
basaltic or mafic
Terms for igneous rocks that are high in dark silicates (45-85%)
granitic or felsic
Terms for igneous rocks that are low in dark silicates (0-25%)
andesitic or intermediate
Terms for igneous rocks that have moderate amounts of dark silicates (25-45%)
ultramafic
Term for igneous rocks that are very high in dark silicates (>85%)
basalt
A rock: igneous, high in dark silicates, and with fine grained texture.
gabbro
A rock: igneous, high in dark silicates, and with coarse-grained texture.
diorite
A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.
andesite
A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a fine-grained texture.
granite
A rock: igneous, is low in dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.
rhyolite
A rock: igneous, is low in dark silicates and has a fine-grained texture.
sedimentary
Category of rock that forms from the lithification of sediments or dissolved substances from preexisting rocks.
chemical and detrital
Two main categories of sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)
cementation and compression
Two processes that form sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)
detrital
Category of sedimentary rocks made of sediments and particles that came from pre-existing rocks. e.g. siltstone.
chemical
Category of sedimentary rocks made of dissolved substances that came from pre-existing rocks. e.g. rock salt.
feldspar
A mineral: breaks down physically and chemically into particles that form muds and clays.
quartz
A mineral: is durable and breaks down physically into smaller and smaller grains.
particle or grain size
Characteristics used to classify detrital sedimentary rocks.
grain size
Term for the average size of the particles that make up a sedimentary rock.
conglomerate
A rock: sedimentary, rounded coarse-grained texture.
breccia
A rock: sedimentary, angular coarse-grained texture.
sandstone
A rock: sedimentary, medium-grained texture.
siltstone
A rock: sedimentary, fine-grained texture.
shale
A rock: sedimentary, very fine-grained texture.
crystalline limestone and travertine
A rock (two types): sedimentary, composed of calcite with a fine to coarse crystalline structure.
coquina
A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with visible and loosely cemented shells and shell fragments.
fossiliferous limestone
A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with various size shells cemented with calcite cement.
chalk
A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with microscopic shells and clay.
chert and flint
A rock (two types): sedimentary, composed of quartz with very fine crystalline texture.
rock gypsum
A rock: sedimentary, composed of gypsum with a fine to coarse crystalline structure.
rock salt
A rock: sedimentary, composed of halite with a find to coarse crystalline structure.
CaSO4
Chemical formula for gypsum.
CaCO3
Chemical formula for calcite.
SiO2
Chemical formula for quartz.
NaCl
Chemical formula for halite.
bituminous coal
A rock: sedimentary, composed of compressed and lithified plant matter.
parent rock
Term for the original rock from which metamorphic rock is made.
low
Grade of metamorphic rock that is not very changed from the parent rock.
high
Grade of metamorphic rock that is very changed from the parent rock.
heat and pressure
Two processes that form metamorphic rocks (in alphabetical order).
around magma bodies and mountain formations
Two places where metamorphic rocks form.
texture, grain size and composition
Three characteristics used to classify metamorphic rocks.
foliated
Term to describe metamorphic rocks that have realigned crystals, which give the rock a layered or banded appearance.
non-foliated
Term to describe metamorphic rocks with crystals that do NOT form layers or bands, usually where a rock is formed of a single mineral. e.g.marble
slate
A rock: metamorphic, foliated, very fine texture, parent material is shale
phyllite
A rock: metamorphic, foliated, fine grained texture, looks like shiny, often wavy, parent rock is slate.
schist
A rock: metamorphic, foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, looks scaly or flaky, parent rock is phyllite.
gneiss
A rock: metamorphic, foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, has light and dark bands, wide range of parent rocks.
marble
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, composed of calcite.
marble
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent rock is limestone or chalk
quartzite
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, and medium to coarse-grained, composed of quartz
quartzite
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent material of sandstone
anthracite
A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent material of coal.