Exam 1 Review
Terms in this set (30)
space and distance
how people use objects to communicate ownership
study of touch
study of the human voice
physiological closeness that people use to draw in others
Why is nonverbal important?
-means of conveying meaning from person to person
-takes up about 66% of our communication
-primary means of expressing and experiencing emotion
Compelling reasons to study NVC?
-its the channel we "trust"
-may form a universal language system
What IS nonverbal communication?
dynamic and ongoing process whereby senders and receivers exchange messages beyond words themselves
NVC is NOT
if something happens and the receiver does NOT assign meaning to it, it is NOT communication
humans as they develop
babies first learn to communicate through NVC
Precedes verbal behavior
-before we have an interaction with someone we must see the other person
giving more importance to NVC than verbal cues
if the receiver believes it, it is so
Information, Behavior, and Communication
Information is the biggest, a subset of that is Behavior and a subset of that is communication
3 types of nonverbal messages
NVC is processed in what part of the brain?
6 ways NVC and verbal messages operate together.
-Repeating: duplicating the message
-Conflicting: when confronted with conflicting messages we are most likely to go with the nonverbal
-Contemplating: goes along with the message, elaborates
-Substituting: uses hand gestures instead of the verbal message (stop)
-Accenting and moderating: amplifying and toning verbal messages
-Regulating: regulate whose turn it is.
"nature" of NVC
-bound by the culture
Nature vs. Nurture debate
-Darwin: Evolution (nature) genetically determined
-Margaret Mead: everything is learned
-Ekman: found that there are some genetic species bound reasons but also says he knows you can learn how to behave
3 sources of NVC behaviors?
Paul Ekmans pan cultural work on expression of emotion
there seems to be a universal association btwn particular facial muscular patterns and discrete emotions across different cultures
Twin Studies and Heredity
-identical twins living apart
-personality, occupational interests, social attitudes, gestures seem to be genetically based
What factors influence decoding accuracy?
-self appraisals and explicit knowledge of nonverbal cues
-general cognitive ability
What do we know about gender specific patterns which impact decoding?
-women are better decoders than men are
-mostly good at judging facial cues
-males are better decoders in anger
exposure to nonverbal stimulus and accuracy
1/24th of a second --> 4/24ths of a second and all the way up to 2 seconds, accuracy increased. Btwn 2 seconds and 5 minutes accuracy did not improve
Moods and Accuracy
-Positive and negative moods affect accuracy
-generally sad moods reduce our accuracy
-deliberate thinkers can easily miss things
Senders accuracy of encoding and decoding
-more extraverted and more expressive are more effective senders (but also bossy and impulsive)
-More introverted are less effective senders but rated as cooperative
-women are better encoders than men
-men in happier marriages send clearer facial messages
-men in low marital happiness are more accurate in decoding NVC of an unknown married woman than their own spouse
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