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Soluble Fibre

binds with bile to decreases blood cholesterol
slows down GIT transit time - helps maintain steady glucose levels

Insoluble Fibre

increases stool weight
decreases gut transition time
helps relieve constipation
provides satiety = aids in weight control

resistant starch

stimulates growth and activity of probiotics
reduces concentration of pathogenic bacteria
protects probiotic bacteria

Thiamin (B1)

part of coenzyme TTP = pyruvate to acetyl coA = energy metabolism
occupies a special site of nerve cell membranes

Riboflavin (B2)

part of coenzymes FMN and FAD used in energy metabolism, utilisation of Oxygen, protein and uric acid metabolism

Niacin (B3)

part of coenzymes NAD and NADP = metabolic reactions
body can make from tryptophan


coenzyme that carries activated carbon dioxide
involved in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis and break down of fatty and amino acids

pantothenic acid

part of CoA that forms acetyl coA

Pyridoxine (B6)

coenzyme PLP in amino acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis
stored in muscle tissue


coenzyme in metabolism
required to convert B12 to active form
cell replication and DNA synthesis

Cobalamine (B12)

activation of folate
maintains myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibres
requires HCl and intrinsic factor for absorption


similar to folate = provides methyl group for conversion of homocysteine to methionine
basic cell building block
foetal brain development


associates with thyroid gland to regulate metabolic processes
controls use of oxygen by cells
used to make 2 thyroid hormones


enhances insulin action
cholesterol metabolism
RNA/DNA metabolism
immune function


cofactor for enzymes in metabolism
bone formation
synthesis of connective tissues


part of thiamin and biotin and some AA
detoxification in liver
maintain pH

Vitamin A

promotes vision
maintains skin health
immune system
bone growth

Vitamin E

antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, LDL, DNA, RBC membranes, white blood cells

Vitamin C

cofactor in collagen formation
muscle function
brain and nerve function
enhances iron absorption
release of stress hormones
needed for healthy immune system


antioxidant - works closely with vitamin E
regulates thyroid hormone
role in immune function


part of haemoglobin - carries oxygen in blood
part of myoglobin - stores oxygen in muscles
immune system
brain development


cofactor for many metalloenzymes
interacts with platelets in clotting
stabilises cell membrane
immune function
wound healing
sperm production and foetal development


part of enzymes involved with oxygen
Hb synthesis
antioxidant enzyme systems
melanin, collagen, elastin production
metabolic reactions
immune function

Vitamin K

coenzyme for activation of proteins in blood clotting
synthesis of bone proteins
aterial health


bone matrix
cellular metabolism
muscle contraction
blood clotting
nerve function

Vitamin D

maintains blood concentrations of calcium and phosphorus by:
-increasing Ca absorption from GIT
-increasing Ca reabsorption by kidney
-mobilisation of Ca from bone


combines with calcium to form bone
component of all cells
component of DNA/RNA
ATP for energy transfer


bone mineralisation
building of protein
muscle contraction
nerve impulse transmission
maintenance of teeth
functioning of immune system


formation of bones and teeth
resistance to teeth decay


normal heart beat
water balance
nerve impulse transmission
muscle contraction


muscle contraction
nerve impulse transmission
fluid balance


carries nutrients and waste products
provides reactant for many chemical reactions
maintains structure of large molecules
maintains blood volume
regulation of body temperature

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