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32 terms

Vitamins and minerals functions

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Soluble Fibre
binds with bile to decreases blood cholesterol
slows down GIT transit time - helps maintain steady glucose levels
Insoluble Fibre
increases stool weight
decreases gut transition time
helps relieve constipation
provides satiety = aids in weight control
resistant starch
stimulates growth and activity of probiotics
reduces concentration of pathogenic bacteria
protects probiotic bacteria
Thiamin (B1)
part of coenzyme TTP = pyruvate to acetyl coA = energy metabolism
occupies a special site of nerve cell membranes
Riboflavin (B2)
part of coenzymes FMN and FAD used in energy metabolism, utilisation of Oxygen, protein and uric acid metabolism
Niacin (B3)
part of coenzymes NAD and NADP = metabolic reactions
body can make from tryptophan
Biotin
coenzyme that carries activated carbon dioxide
involved in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis and break down of fatty and amino acids
pantothenic acid
part of CoA that forms acetyl coA
Pyridoxine (B6)
coenzyme PLP in amino acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis
stored in muscle tissue
Folate
coenzyme in metabolism
required to convert B12 to active form
cell replication and DNA synthesis
Cobalamine (B12)
activation of folate
maintains myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibres
metabolism
requires HCl and intrinsic factor for absorption
Choline
similar to folate = provides methyl group for conversion of homocysteine to methionine
basic cell building block
foetal brain development
Iodine
associates with thyroid gland to regulate metabolic processes
controls use of oxygen by cells
used to make 2 thyroid hormones
chromium
enhances insulin action
cholesterol metabolism
RNA/DNA metabolism
immune function
Manganese
cofactor for enzymes in metabolism
bone formation
synthesis of connective tissues
sulfate
part of thiamin and biotin and some AA
enzymes
detoxification in liver
maintain pH
Vitamin A
promotes vision
maintains skin health
immune system
bone growth
Vitamin E
antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, LDL, DNA, RBC membranes, white blood cells
Vitamin C
cofactor in collagen formation
muscle function
brain and nerve function
enhances iron absorption
release of stress hormones
needed for healthy immune system
Selenium
antioxidant - works closely with vitamin E
regulates thyroid hormone
role in immune function
Iron
part of haemoglobin - carries oxygen in blood
part of myoglobin - stores oxygen in muscles
immune system
brain development
Zinc
cofactor for many metalloenzymes
interacts with platelets in clotting
stabilises cell membrane
immune function
growth/development
wound healing
sperm production and foetal development
Copper
part of enzymes involved with oxygen
Hb synthesis
antioxidant enzyme systems
melanin, collagen, elastin production
metabolic reactions
immune function
Vitamin K
coenzyme for activation of proteins in blood clotting
synthesis of bone proteins
aterial health
Calcium
bone matrix
cellular metabolism
muscle contraction
blood clotting
nerve function
Vitamin D
maintains blood concentrations of calcium and phosphorus by:
-increasing Ca absorption from GIT
-increasing Ca reabsorption by kidney
-mobilisation of Ca from bone
Phosphorus
combines with calcium to form bone
component of all cells
component of DNA/RNA
ATP for energy transfer
Magnesium
bone mineralisation
building of protein
cofactor
muscle contraction
nerve impulse transmission
maintenance of teeth
functioning of immune system
Fluoride
formation of bones and teeth
resistance to teeth decay
Sodium
normal heart beat
water balance
nerve impulse transmission
muscle contraction
Potassium
muscle contraction
nerve impulse transmission
fluid balance
water
carries nutrients and waste products
provides reactant for many chemical reactions
maintains structure of large molecules
solvent
maintains blood volume
regulation of body temperature