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Within-subjects designs

-also called repeated measures designs
-matched-subjects designs

Advantages of within within-subjects designs

-need fewer Ps (more efficient)
-can study change over time
-reduces random variation
-no confounds with individual differences


-sometimes impossible
-order effects (see below)

Order effects

a confound created by changes in Ps that result from repeated exposure to IV levels

Practice effects

getting better if test is done over and over again

Fatigue effects

you deteriorate in your performance over time, if you make someone do it over and over again they will get tired and worn out


being aware of what is being tested

Carryover effects

effects from previous treatments may still be present when presenting new treatment (drug trials)


presenting levels of IV in different orders to different Ps

Complete counterbalancing

-include all possible orders of conditions
-Ps can either go to condition A,B,C, or D

Latin squares design

each condition appears in each position once and each conditions precedes and follows another condition once

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