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SM2 - Therapeutic Modalities
Terms in this set (62)
Anything used for the management of injury
Gate Control Theory
Non-painful input that closes the "gate" to painful input - results in the prevention of pain sensation from traveling to the CNS
therapeutic use of cooling agents
shrinking of blood vessels
enlargement of blood vessels
a form of cold using ice cubes in a bag placed directly on a body part
a commercially produced form of cold made of a mixture that does not freeze solid, but remains pliable when cold
Chemical Cold Pack
a form of cold that has a pack with two compartments that when squeezed, broken, and mixed together becomes cold
a form of cold that is a solid piece of ice that is rubbed over an affected area
Cold Water Compression
a form of cold mixed with intermittent pressure; uses a sleeve with a bladder that fills with cold water and some sort of pump to create pressure
Ice Bath (Immersion)
a form of cold where a body part is submerged in cold water
a form of cold where a body part is submerged in cold water AND there is a motor that is moving the water (convection currents)
a form of heat using a moist heat pack that requires an insulated cover
Electrical Heating Pad
a form of heat that is dry and requires an outlet
a form of heat where a body part is submerged in warm water
a form of deep heating where electrical current is transformed into tissue penetrating sound waves
1 cycle (wave) per second
the fraction of time when an ultrasound beam is flowing during one pulse
aka. Sound Head; a metal shield which houses the vibrating synthetic crystal
a cream or gel applied to an area for ultrasound treatment that provides a medium for sonic waves to penetrate the skin
the use of electrical impulses to produce muscle contractions by stimulating the motor nerves
aka. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation; stimulation of a peripheral nerve to cause either a sensory or motor response
aka. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation; the use of stimulation to improve function by reducing pain
the systematic manipulation, methodical pressure, friction, & kneading of soft tissues
the use of strokes that glide over the skin without moving deep muscle groups
kneading the soft tissues between the thumb and fingers (or palm)
Deep Friction Massage
use of the thumbs and fingers in a circular pattern with enough pressure to contact underlying tissues
beating the hands or fingers on the skin
use of quick motions of the fingers or a vibrating machine
functions of modalities
Why use modalities?
Minimize time lost from playing a sport
Shorten recovery time
What is the function of thin diameter sensory fibers?
What is the function of large diameter sensory fibers?
touch - pressure - vibration
According to the Gate Control Theory, what occurs to result in LESS PAIN BEING FELT by an athlete?
More large nerve fiber activity relative to thin nerve fiber activity at the inhibitory cell gives this result
Why is cold the modality of choice for acute injuries?
Cold causes initial vasoconstriction, reduction in tissue metabolism, nerve conduction velocity & muscle spasm
Why is heat a poor choice of modality for acute injuries?
Heat may exacerbate swelling rather than help
the benefits of cryotherapy
It helps to manage: pain, swelling (edema), spasm, & muscle guarding
physiological affects of cold on the body
initial vasoconstriction of vessels
reduction of tissue metabolism
decrease in nerve velocity
reduction of muscle spasm
increase in muscle strength after treatment
How long should cold therapy be applied to an injury
Maximum of 20 minutes with 2 hours between applications
Pro's & Con's of Ice Bags
Pro's: economical - made easily - good on local areas - wrapped in place easily
Con's: covers only small area
Pro's & Con's of Gel Packs
Pro's: commercially made - ready for immediate use in freezer - molds well to body parts - retains cold longer than ice - treatment time shorter
Con's: risk of cold injury
Pro's & Con's of Chemical Cold Bags
Pro's: stored for long periods @ room temp
Con's: longer treatment time - more expensive
not as cold - doesn't form to body well
Pro's & Con's of Ice Massage
Pro's: good for local areas - combines cold w/ massage - shorter treatment time
Con's: not as good for acute injury
Pro's & Con's of Ice Bath (Immersion)
Pro's: complete coverage of body part - ROM during treatment - short treatment time
Con's: time to set-up - time to clean after - cannot compress area
Pro's & Con's of Cold Water Compression
Pro's: cold w/ compression
purpose of using a pain rating scale
To measure an individual's pain objectively
benefits of heating
Promotion of healing
physiological affect of heat on the body
Increases vasodilation and temperature resulting in increased metabolic rate & oxygenation of tissues
Pro's & Con's of Hydrocollator Packs
Pro's: cost effective - easy to apply
Con's: can burn skin
Pro's & Con's of Electric Heating Pads
Pro's: dry form of heat, can control temp
Con's: Limited to area close to outlets
Pro's & Con's of Warm Whirlpool
Pros: treat large area - uniform coverage of area -
ROM during treatment
Cons: time to clean and fill - space it takes up -
Pro's & Con's of Ultrasound
Pros: heat to a greater depth - short treatment time - thermal & non-thermal effects
Cons: expensive - knowledge required for use -
time intensive - risk of misuse
How is an ultrasonic wave is created in an ultrasound modality?
a vibrating synthetic crystal that is housed in a metal shield called a transducer (sound head) creates it
How deep can ultrasound penetrate tissue?
Up to 5 cm
What is continuous ultrasound?
Continuous ultrasound produces deep-heating effects and the duty cycle is 100%.
What is pulsed ultrasound?
Pulsed ultrasound has non-thermal effects (but does facilitate tissue healing) and the duty cycle is normally 20%.
benefits of electrical stimulation
Increased ROM & muscle strength
Improving muscle tone
Enhancing muscle function
Accelerating wound healing
Reducing muscle spasm
most common type of electrical stimulation
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)
purpose of using a TENS (functional) unit
Reduce pain by stimulating sensory and pain signaling nerves will help to improve function of an area
How does heat and cold therapy affect flexibility/elasticity of muscle tissue?
Heat tends to increase elasticity of tissues more than cold does
benefits of massage
Decrease muscle spasm & edema
How are pain scales useful when using modalities with patients?
They give you an objective number about how a patient is feeling at that time. This allows you to adjust the therapy accordingly
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