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296 terms

GEOG 155: Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
The _______________ temperature scale is used in scientific research because temperature readings are proportional to the actual kinetic energy in a material.

- Kelvin
- Kaveney
- Christopherson
- Fahrenheit
- Celsius
Kelvin
Holding all other factors constant, air temperature diminishes with increasing altitude because the ________ of the atmosphere decreases.

-apparent temperature
-specific heat
-continentality
-density
density
On a sunny summer day, we can attribute the difference in temperature between the hot surface of a sandy beach and the cooler sand a few centimeters below the surface to the very low ________________ of the sand.

-relative humidity
-specific temperature
-transparency
-land-water heating difference
-heat index
transparency
One of the primary reasons that water changes temperature more slowly than soil or rock is because of its higher ________.

-absolute heat
-volume
-ambient temperature
-specific heat
-absolute temperature
specific heat
Temperature maps commonly use lines of constant (equal) temperature called __________________ to portray the spatial pattern of temperature.

-thermal equators
-temperature lines
-wind chill potential
-isotherms
-isokelvins
isotherms
Everything else being equal, you would expect higher temperatures associated with _______________.

-high elevations
-low elevations
-high longitudes
-rural areas
-low longitudes
low elevations
The isotherm corresponding to the highest temperatures on Earth's surface is called the___________.

-thermal equilibrium
-equatorial isotherm
-thermal equator
-isotherm
-maximum temperature isoline
thermal equator
The ____________ indicates the human body's reaction to temperature and water vapor (see Focus Study 5.1).

-Beufort scale
-heat index
-wind chill index
-Kelvin scale
-humidity index
heat index
Places with the largest annual temperature ranges on Earth are __________________.

-the middle latitudes, which are neither too hot, nor too cold-tropical regions
-subpolar locations within the continental interiors of North America and Asia
-polar regions
-along the west coasts of the continents
subpolar locations within the continental interiors of North America and Asia
On a global scale, ____________ is the single most important direct influence on temperature.

-insolation
-wind patterns
-air pressure
-longitude
-altitude
insolation
An outdoor thermometer reading ________ degrees Celsius would indicate a very hot but bearable day.

-95
-40
-10
-25
-120
-60
40
Altitude is the single most important influence on temperature variations.

T or F
False
Within the troposphere, temperatures decrease with increasing altitude above Earth's surface.

T or F
True
Approximately 84 percent of all evaporation on Earth is from the land.

T or F
False
Higher ocean temperatures produce higher evaporation rates.

T or F
True
Locations near the centers of continents are described as having more "maritime" influences than locations near the coasts.

T or F
False
On average, the coldest region of Earth is in northern Canada.

T or F
False
Apparent temperature is the perception of temperature, and it varies among individuals and cultures.

T or F
True
The coldest wind chill factors are produced by low temperatures and high winds.

T or F
True
The heat index is a combination of temperature and humidity.

T or F
True
In July, isotherms in the Northern Hemisphere shift toward the poles over land since higher temperatures occur in continental interiors.

T or F
True
Compared to a land surface exposed to the same solar radiation, an ocean surface should have a higher annual temperature range.

T or F
False
A traveler heading due east from San Francisco, Calif., in January will generally experience warmer overall temperatures as he/she approaches the interior of the continent.

T or F
False
If you had to measure a temperature below -38F degrees?
an alcohol thermometer
the melting point of ice
0 degrees Celsius (32 °F)
lowest recorded temperature in Southern Hemisphere (Vostok, Antarctica)
-89 degrees Celsius (-129 °F)
lowest recorded temperature in Northern Hemisphere (Verkhoyansk, Russia)
-68 degrees Celsius (-90 °F)
normal room temperature
20 degrees Celsius (68 °F)
boiling point of water (at sea-level air pressure)
100 degrees Celsius (212 °F)
highest recorded temperature for North America (Death Valley, CA)
57 degrees Celsius (134 °F)
approximate normal body temperature
37 degrees Celsius (98 °F)
We measure wind speed using a/an ____________.

-wind tunnel
-wind speedometer
-anemometer
-Beaufort scale
-wind vane
anemometer
We measure air pressure using ______________.

-a Torricelli scale
-a Torricelli pump
-aneroid mercury
-a barometer
-an isobar
a barometer
The surface flow of a Southern Hemisphere cyclone (low-pressure system) would be ________.

-inward and counterclockwise
-inward and clockwise
-outward and counterclockwise
-outward and clockwise
inward and clockwise
The Polar Jet Stream meanders between 30 and 70 degrees north latitude at the Tropopause along the Polar Front.

T or F
True
In a Northern Hemisphere anticyclone, the dominant surface air circulation pattern can be described as clockwise and outward.

T or F
True
Frictional forces vary according to the type of surface over which the wind blows.

T or F
True
If one were able to look down on the Earth from some point above the North Pole, one would see that the Earth rotates in a clockwise direction.

T or F
False
The pressure gradient force acts in a direction perpendicular to the isobars, from low to high pressure.

T or F
False
The highest barometric pressure ever recorded on Earth occurred in association with Hurricane Wilma in 2005.

T or F
False
Surface high pressure is best generally associated with fair, clear weather.

T or F
True
An isobar is a line plotted on a weather map to connect all points of equal temperature.

T or F
False
Along the equator, winds converge into the equatorial high pressure trough creating the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

T or F
False
Both the North Pacific Aleutian Low and the North Atlantic Icelandic low are dominant in winter and weaken in the summer.

T or F
True
ENSO is the abbreviation for the El Nino Stable Orientation.

T or F
False
As related to land and sea breezes, inland areas cool faster than offshore areas.

T or F
True
Mountain breezes are most likely to occur during the heat of the day.

T or F
False
Southern Australia is most likely to experience its monsoon rains during July and August.

T or F
False
Normal sea-level air pressure is _____.
-29.92 cm of mercury
-1013.2 millibars
-29.92 millibars
-760 millibars
1013.2 millibars
Air flow is initiated by the
-pressure gradient force.
-Coriolis force.
-friction force.
-centrifugal force.
pressure gradient force.
An increase in air pressure will cause the mercury in a barometer to __________.
-rise
-fall
-freeze
-none of the above-barometers do not measure air pressure
rise
Which of the following does not cause the height of the column of mercury in a barometer to change?
-changes in the pressure of the air exerted on the mercury in the barometer's pan
-changes in the temperature of the air
-changes in the force exerted by the vacuum inside the top of the barometer's tube
-changes in the weight of the air
changes in the force exerted by the vacuum inside the top of the barometer's tube
How would a moving object in Earth's atmosphere be deflected as a result of Earth's rotation?
-to the left in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
-to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
-to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-to the left in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
What is the Coriolis Effect?
-the deflection of moving objects to the left in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
-the deflection of moving objects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-the deflection of moving objects to the left in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-the deflection of moving objects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
the deflection of moving objects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the North Pole toward the equator?
-toward the left
-toward the North Pole
-toward the equator
-toward the right
toward the right
Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the South Pole toward the equator?
-toward the South Pole
-toward the equator
-toward the left
-toward the right
toward the left
Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the North Pole toward the equator?
-toward the east
-toward the west
-toward the south
-toward the north
toward the west
Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the West Coast of the United States toward the East Coast of the United States?
-toward the north
-toward the south
-toward the west
-toward the east
toward the south
Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the East Coast of the United States toward the West Coast of the United States?
-toward the north
-toward the west
-toward the south
-toward the east
toward the north
Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the east coast of South Africa toward the west coast of South Africa?
-toward the south
-toward the east
-toward the west
-toward the north
toward the south
Which direction would an airplane deflect if flying across South Africa from the west coast to the east coast?
-toward the west
-toward the south
-toward the north
-toward the east
toward the north
How does wind generally move?
-From areas of higher atmospheric pressure toward areas of lower atmospheric pressure
-From areas of lower atmospheric pressure toward areas of higher atmospheric pressure
From areas of higher atmospheric pressure toward areas of lower atmospheric pressure
What causes the pressure gradient force?
-Interaction between wind and surrounding atmosphere
-The difference in atmospheric pressure from one location to another
-The earth's rotation
The difference in atmospheric pressure from one location to another
What causes the Coriolis force?
-The difference in atmospheric pressure from one location to another
-The earth's rotation
-Interaction between wind and surrounding atmosphere
The earth's rotation
How does the Coriolis force deflect objects in the atmosphere, relative to their original paths?
-To the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-To the left in the Northern Hemisphere and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-To the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
-To the left in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
To the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
What causes friction forces?
-Interaction between wind and surrounding atmosphere
-The difference in atmospheric pressure from one location to another
-The earth's rotation
Interaction between wind and surrounding atmosphere
How would wind move if Coriolis and friction forces did not exist?
-Wind would move directly from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low atmospheric pressure.
-Wind would move straight up in the atmosphere.
-Wind would curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
-Wind would not move.
Wind would move directly from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low atmospheric pressure.
How would wind move if pressure gradient and friction forces did not exist?
-Wind would curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
-Wind would not move.
-Wind would move directly from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low atmospheric pressure.
-Wind would move straight up in the atmosphere.
Wind would not move.
How would wind move if pressure gradient and Coriolis forces did not exist?
-Wind would move directly from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low atmospheric pressure.
-Wind would not move.
-Wind would curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
-Wind would move straight up in the atmosphere.
Wind would not move.
A isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as
-an isobar.
-the thermal equator.
-an equilibrium line.
-an isotherm.
an isobar.
Air flows __________ a surface high pressure area because the density of the air in the high pressure zone is __________ than that of the surrounding air.
-out of; more dense
-out of; less dense
-into; more dense
-into; less dense
out of; more dense
What is a cyclone?
-a center of low atmospheric temperature
-a center of high atmospheric pressure
-a center of low atmospheric pressure
-a center of high atmospheric temperature
a center of low atmospheric pressure
Which way does air converge on a cyclone in the Northern Hemisphere?
-toward the equator
-toward the North Pole
-toward the South Pole
-in a counterclockwise direction
-in a clockwise direction
in a counterclockwise direction
Which way does air converge on a cyclone in the Southern Hemisphere?
-toward the equator
-in a counterclockwise direction
-toward the South Pole
-toward the North Pole
-in a clockwise direction
in a clockwise direction
How does air move near the top of a cyclone?
-in the opposite direction to air in the upper atmosphere
-in the same direction as air in the lower atmosphere
-in the opposite direction to air in the lower atmosphere
-in the same direction as air in the upper atmosphere
in the same direction as air in the upper atmosphere
Why are cyclones generally associated with clouds and rain?
-Air in cyclones undergoes cooling as it rises.
-Air in cyclones undergoes warming as it falls.
-Air in cyclones undergoes cooling as it falls.
-Air in cyclones undergoes warming as it rises.
Air in cyclones undergoes cooling as it rises.
What is an anticylone?
-a center of low atmospheric temperature
-a center of low atmospheric pressure
-a center of high atmospheric pressure
-a center of high atmospheric temperature
a center of high atmospheric pressure
Which way does air move in an anticyclone in the Northern Hemisphere?
-down, and in a clockwise direction
-up, and in a counterclockwise direction
-up, and in a clockwise direction
-down, and in a counterclockwise direction
down, and in a clockwise direction
Which way does air move in an anticyclone in the Southern Hemisphere?
-down, and in a counterclockwise direction
-down, and in a clockwise direction
-up, and in a clockwise direction
-up, and in a counterclockwise direction
down, and in a counterclockwise direction
Why are anticyclones not generally associated with clouds and rain?
-Air in anticyclones undergoes cooling as the air rises.
-Air in anticyclones undergoes warming as the air rises.
-Air in anticyclones undergoes cooling as the air descends.
-Air in anticyclones undergoes warming as the air descends.
Air in anticyclones undergoes warming as the air descends.
Where are Hadley cells found?
-in the atmosphere near the poles
-in the water near the equator
-in the water near the poles
-in the atmosphere near the equator
in the atmosphere near the equator
What drives Hadley cell circulation?
-pressure from wind patterns
-heating from volcanism
-heating from the Sun
-pressure from air systems
heating from the Sun
How does the location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) change over time?
-The ITCZ migrates south of the equator in winter and north of the equator in summer.
-The ITCZ migrates north of the equator in Northern Hemisphere winter and south of the equator in Northern Hemisphere summer.
-The ITCZ migrates north of the equator in winter and south of the equator in summer.
-The ITCZ migrates south of the equator in Northern Hemisphere winter and north of the equator in Northern Hemisphere summer.
The ITCZ migrates south of the equator in Northern Hemisphere winter and north of the equator in Northern Hemisphere summer.
When would you expect the low-pressure cell over the North Pole to be most developed?
-during the Northern Hemisphere winter
-during the Northern Hemisphere fall
-during the Northern Hemisphere spring
-during the Northern Hemisphere summer
during the Northern Hemisphere winter
Which areas of Earth experience the most precipitation?
-areas near the polar front
-areas near the ITCZ
-areas near the subtropical highs
areas near the ITCZ
What two features are many of Earth's deserts associated with?
-the subtropical highs and warm ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents
-the subtropical lows and cool ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents
-the subtropical lows and warm ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents
-the subtropical highs and cool ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents
the subtropical highs and cool ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents
What process cools air as it rises above the equator?
-subductive cooling
-adiabatic cooling
-convective cooling
-advective cooling
-conductive cooling
adiabatic cooling
What is a Hadley cell?
-a large convection cell of ocean water that rises near the equator due to the Coriolis Effect
-a large convection cell of ocean water that rises near the equator due to heating of water
-a large convection cell of air that rises near the equator due to heating of air
-a large convection cell of air that rises near the equator due to the Coriolis Effect
a large convection cell of air that rises near the equator due to heating of air
What is the intertropical convergence zone?
-the region of rising air and low pressure near the equator
-the region of rising air and high pressure near the equator
-the region of falling air and high pressure near the equator
-the region of falling air and low pressure near the equator
the region of rising air and low pressure near the equator
What type of weather would you expect to encounter along the intertropical convergence zone?
-cloudy conditions and high rainfall
-cloudy conditions and low annual rainfall
-mixed cloudy and clear conditions and high rainfall
-cloudy conditions and moderate rainfall
-mixed cloudy and clear conditions and low rainfall
cloudy conditions and high rainfall
What features are found near the subtropical high-pressure systems?
-large Coriolis systems
-large lake systems
-large organic-material-rich systems
-large rain systems
-large desert systems
large desert systems
Where on Earth would you find the trade winds and the westerlies?
-The trade winds occur in the midlatitude regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The westerlies occur between 30º N and 30º S.
-The trade winds occur in the polar regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The westerlies occur between 30º N and 30º S.
-The trade winds occur between 30º N and 30º S. The westerlies occur in the midlatitude regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
-The trade winds occur between 30º N and 30º S. The westerlies occur in the polar regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
The trade winds occur between 30º N and 30º S. The westerlies occur in the midlatitude regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
Where are the antitrade winds located?
-next to the trade winds
-above the trade winds
-behind the trade winds
-in front of the trade winds
-below the trade winds
above the trade winds
What type of weather would you expect to encounter along the polar front?
-clear conditions and little precipitation
-clear conditions and abundant precipitation
-cloudy conditions and abundant precipitation
-cloudy conditions and little precipitation
cloudy conditions and abundant precipitation
Where are the jet streams located?
-The subtropical jet is above the boundary between trade winds and easterlies, while the polar jet is above the boundary between westerlies and easterlies.
-The subtropical jet is located above the subtropical low, and the polar jet is located above the polar high.
-The subtropical jet is above the boundary between the trade winds and the westerlies, and the polar jet is located above the polar high.
-The subtropical jet is located above the subtropical high, and the polar jet is located above the Polar Front.
The subtropical jet is located above the subtropical high, and the polar jet is located above the Polar Front.
What are jet streams?
-bands of high-speed wind found at elevations of 9-15 km
-Bands of high-speed wind found at elevations of 5-9 km
-Bands of low-speed wind found at elevations of 5-9 km
-bands of low-speed wind found at elevations of 9-15 km
bands of high-speed wind found at elevations of 9-15 km
In which direction do jet streams generally travel?
-west to east
-north to south
-east to west
-south to north
west to east
Where are the two main hemispheric jet streams located?
-above 60 degrees latitude and below 30 degrees latitude
-between 50 and 60 degrees latitude and at about 30 degrees latitude
-between 50 and 60 degrees longitude and at about 30 degrees longitude
-above 60 degrees longitude and below 30 degrees longitude
between 50 and 60 degrees latitude and at about 30 degrees latitude
What are Rossby waves?
-major undulations in the path of a jet stream
-minor undulations in the Earth's orbital parameters
-major undulations in Earth's orbital parameters
-minor undulations in the path of a jet stream
major undulations in the path of a jet stream
How can the jet stream return to normal zonal flow after Rossby waves build?
-through separation of a mass of cold air from the jet stream
-through separation of a mass of cold water from the jet stream
-through addition of a mass of cold air to the jet stream
-through addition of a mass of cold water to the jet stream
through separation of a mass of cold air from the jet stream
Thermohaline circulation
-is driven by frictional drag of winds.
-is driven by less-salty polar water.
-transports greater volumes of water than surface currents.
-is driven by western intensification.
transports greater volumes of water than surface currents.
The great circulations in the ocean basins occur around the __________ pressure systems and are known as __________.
-subtropical high; ocean streams
-subpolar low; ocean streams
-subpolar low; gyres
-subtropical high; gyres
subtropical high; gyres
Ocean currents are produced by
-land-sea breezes.
-the Coriolis force and water density differences.
-the frictional drag of winds.
-the frictional drag of winds, the Coriolis force, and water density differences
the frictional drag of winds, the Coriolis force, and water density differences
How much of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans?
-Almost none of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
-One-quarter of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
-Almost all of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
-Three-quarters of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
-Half of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
Almost all of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
Which ocean is Earth's largest?
-the Indian Ocean
-the Arctic Ocean
-the Atlantic Ocean
-the Pacific Ocean
the Pacific Ocean
Where is most of Earth's freshwater found?
-as liquid below Earth's surface
-as liquid at Earth's surface
-as ice below Earth's surface
-as ice at Earth's surface
as ice at Earth's surface
What does the hydrologic cycle describe?
-The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and gaseous water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and rivers.
-The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and gaseous water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
-The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and solid water move between the ocean, atmosphere and rivers.
-The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and solid water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
-The hydrologic cycle describes how solid and gaseous water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and gaseous water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
How does water get from the oceans onto land?
-Ocean water condenses to form gaseous water and moves into the atmosphere, where it evaporates into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
-Ocean water evaporates to form solid water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
-Ocean water evaporates to form gaseous water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
-Ocean water evaporates to form gaseous water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into gaseous water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
-Ocean water evaporates to form liquid water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
Ocean water evaporates to form gaseous water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
What would happen to atmospheric water if Earth were mostly covered with land?
-The atmosphere would contain warmer water.
-The atmosphere would contain colder water.
-The atmosphere would contain less water.
-The atmosphere would contain more water.
The atmosphere would contain less water.
What would happen to the oceans if surface runoff and groundwater flow were reduced (for example, by the growth of ice sheets during an ice age)?
-The oceans would become smaller.
-The oceans would become bigger.
-The oceans would stay the same size.
The oceans would become smaller.
Which of the following is true of the distribution of land and water on Earth?
-The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by water.
-The Northern Hemisphere is dominated by water.
-They are evenly distributed in both hemispheres.
The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by water.
Which of the following is true regarding the amount of water in rivers, streams, and the atmosphere?
- Their volume is 1/10 the volume of water in fresh water lakes.
- They contain 0.033 percent of the world's fresh water supply.
- The total amount of water in these locations is equal to 14,250 km3 (3400 mi3).
- All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
What must break in order for water to change from solid to liquid to gas?
-Covalent bonds between water molecules
-Hydrogen bonds within water molecules
-Covalent bonds within water molecules
-Ionic bonds within water molecules
-Hydrogen bonds between water molecules
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules
How much heat energy is needed to melt 1 gram of ice?
-8 calories of heat energy
-80 calories of heat energy
-800 calories of heat energy
-8000 calories of heat energy
80 calories of heat energy
Why does temperature NOT initially increase as energy is added after ice begins to melt?
-The added energy is used to form hydrogen bonds within water molecules.
-The added energy is used to break hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
-The added energy is used to form hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
-The added energy is used to break hydrogen bonds within water molecules.
The added energy is used to break hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
What physically breaks hydrogen bonds between water molecules as ice melts?
-Covalent bonds of water molecules
-The mass of water molecules
-The polarity of water molecules
-The movement of water molecules
The movement of water molecules
What do we call the energy used to melt ice once the ice becomes water?
-Latent heat of condensation
-Latent heat of vaporization
-Latent heat of fusion
-Latent heat of melting
Latent heat of melting
How much heat energy is needed to turn 1 gram of water at 100 degrees Celsius into water vapor?
-5.4 calories of heat energy
-54 calories of heat energy
-540 calories of heat energy
-5400 calories of heat energy
540 calories of heat energy
How can water vapor become ice?
-Water vapor can become liquid water through the release of heat energy, and then become ice through the release of more heat energy. Water vapor cannot become ice directly through the release of heat energy.
-Water vapor can become liquid water through the addition of heat energy, and then become ice through the addition of more heat energy. Water vapor can also become ice directly through the addition of heat energy.
-Water vapor can become liquid water through the addition of heat energy, and then become ice through the addition of more heat energy. Water vapor cannot become ice directly through the addition of heat energy.
-Water vapor can become liquid water through the release of heat energy, and then become ice through the release of more heat energy. Water vapor can also become ice directly through the release of heat energy.
Water vapor can become liquid water through the release of heat energy, and then become ice through the release of more heat energy. Water vapor can also become ice directly through the release of heat energy.
_________ of heat is released when one gram of water vapor condenses into liquid water.
-540 calories
-720 calories
-80 calories
-620 calories
540 calories
When water freezes, its volume
-increases.
-decreases.
-remains the same as in the liquid state.
increases.
Relative humidity refers to __________.
-mb of water vapor in the air
-the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the maximum amount of water vapor possible
-the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the temperature of the air
-the amount of water vapor in the air per kilogram of air
the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the maximum amount of water vapor possible
The capacity of the air to hold water vapor is basically a function of
-the water vapor content.
-latent heat.
-the temperature of both the water vapor and the air.
-freezing temperature.
the temperature of both the water vapor and the air.
If the saturation vapor pressure increases while the amount of water vapor in the air remains constant, this would indicate
- that the air was cooling by expansion.
- that the temperature had increased.
- that the temperature had decreased as a result of the loss of heat energy.
- none of the above
that the temperature had increased.
What causes the development of most clouds and precipitation in the atmosphere?
-rising density
-rising air
-rising oceans
-rising temperature
rising air
Why would a parcel of air rise relative to other air in the atmosphere?
-A parcel of air will rise if the air in the parcel has a lower mass than the surrounding air.
-A parcel of air will rise if the air in the parcel has a higher mass than the surrounding air.
-A parcel of air will rise if it has a higher density than the surrounding air.
-A parcel of air will rise if it has a lower density than the surrounding air.
A parcel of air will rise if it has a lower density than the surrounding air.
Which factor is most important for determining the density of a parcel of air?
-pressure
-mass
-gravity
-volume
-temperature
temperature
What will happen if a parcel of air is colder than surrounding air?
Choose all that apply.
-A colder parcel of air will sink in the atmosphere if forced.
-A colder parcel of air will sink in the atmosphere on its own.
-A colder parcel of air will rise in the atmosphere if forced.
-A colder parcel of air will rise in the atmosphere on its own.
-A colder parcel of air will sink in the atmosphere on its own.
-A colder parcel of air will rise in the atmosphere if forced.
What will happen to a parcel of air as it rises?
-A rising parcel of air will contract and heat.
-A rising parcel of air will expand and heat.
-A rising parcel of air will expand and cool.
-A rising parcel of air will contract and cool.
A rising parcel of air will expand and cool.
If two parcels of air start at the same temperature at 2000 meters above Earth's surface, which would end up with a higher temperature, an unsaturated parcel of air at Earth's surface or a saturated parcel of air 4000 meters above Earth's surface?
-An unsaturated parcel of air at Earth's surface would be warmer, since adiabatic temperature changes are greater for unsaturated than for saturated air, regardless of any temperature difference due to changes in elevation.
-An unsaturated parcel of air at Earth's surface would be warmer, since air cools as it rises and warms as it descends, regardless of any temperature difference due to saturation.
-A saturated parcel of air at 4000 meters above Earth's surface would be warmer, since air warms as it rises and cools as it descends, regardless of any temperature difference due to saturation.
-A saturated parcel of air 4000 meters above Earth's surface would be warmer, since adiabatic temperature changes are greater for saturated than for unsaturated air, regardless of any temperature difference due to changes in elevation.
An unsaturated parcel of air at Earth's surface would be warmer, since air cools as it rises and warms as it descends, regardless of any temperature difference due to saturation.
Two parcels of air, one dry and one wet, sit at the same temperature at sea level. What will the temperature difference between the two bodies of air be after they rise to 2000 meters elevation?
-The dry parcel of air will be 12 degrees warmer than the wet parcel of air.
-The dry parcel of air will be 12 degrees colder than the wet parcel of air.
-The dry parcel of air will be 8 degrees warmer than the wet parcel of air.
-The dry parcel of air will be 8 degrees colder than the wet parcel of air.
The dry parcel of air will be 8 degrees colder than the wet parcel of air.
In general, when will clouds begin to form out of a parcel of air?
-when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature above its dew point
-when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature above its Lifting Condensation Level
-when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature below its dew point
-when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature below its Lifting Condensation Level
when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature below its dew point
Which process can add heat to a rising body of air?
-condensation
-rising
-depressurizing
-precipitation
condensation
The wet adiabatic rate __________.
- is higher than the dry rate
- is less than the dry rate
- is always the same as the environmental lapse rate
- varies with temperature
is less than the dry rate
An air parcel is considered unstable when it
- either remains as it is, or changes its initial position.
- continues to rise until it reaches an altitude at which the surrounding air has a similar temperature.
- it resists displacement upward.
- it ceases to ascend.
continues to rise until it reaches an altitude at which the surrounding air has a similar temperature.
Clouds are classified based on their _____.
- humidity and temperature
- shape and water content
- altitude and shape
- size and shape
- size and water content
altitude and shape
Which of these types of fog would you find after a clear night, especially over moist ground?
- evaporation fog
- advection fog
- radiation fog
- upslope fog
radiation fog
Condensation nuclei over the ocean consist primarily of
- minute fragments of sea shells.
- pieces of coral.
- salt particles.
- clay particles.
salt particles.
Weather is
-the climate of a region.
- the short-term condition of the atmosphere.
- a reference to temperature patterns only.
- the long-term atmospheric condition, including extremes that may occur
the short-term condition of the atmosphere.
Over the last two decades, costs for weather-related destruction has, on an annual basis,
- decreased.
- increased two-fold.
- increased five-fold.
- stayed about the same
increased five-fold.
Air masses are classified according to their_____.
- temperature and source region
- temperature alone
- moisture content alone
- temperature, humidity, and stability
- moisture and temperature
temperature and source region
Air masses which develop over Canada are examples of __________ air masses.
- mT
- mP
- cT
- cP
cP
Given a cP air mass and cT air mass with the same relative humidity, which air mass would have higher specific humidity?
- The cT air mass would have the higher specific humidity.
- The cP air mass would have the higher specific humidity.
- The specific humidity of both would be the same because their relative humidities are the same.
- It is impossible to say what would usually be true of their specific humidities
The cT air mass would have the higher specific humidity.
A mT air mass is likely to be __________ than a cT air mass because the mT air mass __________.
-drier; is a cold air mass
- drier; forms under the equatorial low
- wetter; is warmer than the cT air mass
- wetter; forms over the ocean
- hotter; forms over the ocean
wetter; forms over the ocean
What is a front?
-the boundary between two water masses of different size
-the boundary between two land masses of different temperatures
-the boundary between two water masses of different temperatures
-the boundary between two air masses of different size
-the boundary between two air masses of different temperatures
the boundary between two air masses of different temperatures
Where does rain occur in a warm front?
-Rain occurs along and to the left of a warm front.
-Rain occurs along and in front of a warm front.
-Rain occurs along and to the right of a warm front.
-Rain occurs along and behind a warm front.
Rain occurs along and in front of a warm front.
Where does rain occur in a cold front?
-Rain occurs along and behind a cold front.
-Rain occurs along and in front of a cold front.
-Rain occurs along and to the right of a cold front.
-Rain occurs along and to the left of a cold front.
Rain occurs along and behind a cold front.
How are rain patterns different near warm and cold fronts?
-Rain near a cold front occurs over a wider spatial area and is more intense than near a cold front.
-Rain near a warm front occurs over a smaller spatial area and is less intense than near a cold front.
-Rain near a cold front occurs over a smaller spatial area and is less intense than near a cold front.
-Rain near a warm front occurs over a wider spatial area and is less intense than near a cold front.
Rain near a warm front occurs over a wider spatial area and is less intense than near a cold front.
How are cold and warm fronts different?
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is older.
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is larger.
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is moving.
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is higher.
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is heavier.
The type of front is determined by which air mass is moving.
Why does rain occur near a cold front?
-Falling cold air warms, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
-Falling cold air cools, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
-Rising warm air warms further, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
-Rising warm air cools, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
Rising warm air cools, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
Why does rain occur near a warm front?
-Rising warm air warms, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
-Falling cold air warms, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
-Rising warm air cools, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
-Falling cold air cools, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
Rising warm air cools, resulting in cloud formation and rain.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone is characterized by
- warm, wet rising air.
- cold, dry rising air.
- cold, dry sinking air.
- warm dry rising air.
warm, wet rising air.
The term "rain shadow" refers to
- areas that are characteristic of the western slopes and margins of the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.
- periods of time during which there is a lack of rainfall.
- wet areas on the downwind sides of mountains.
- windward slopes of mountains.
- dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges.
dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges.
What are midlatitude cyclones?
-Stationary low-pressure cells that move in the band of the westerlies
-Migrating low-pressure cells that move in the band of the easterlies
-Migrating low-pressure cells that move in the band of the westerlies
-Stationary low-pressure cells that move in the band of the easterlies
Migrating low-pressure cells that move in the band of the westerlies
What happens when air masses of different temperatures meet?
-The warm air mass pulls the cool air mass into its center.
-The air masses mix readily.
-The air masses move apart quickly.
-Well-defined boundaries form between the air masses.
Well-defined boundaries form between the air masses.
Which of the following statements about movement in midlatitude cyclones are accurate?
CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY.
-The warm front advances faster than the center of the storm, and the cold front advances more slowly than the center.
-The warm and cold fronts advance faster than the center of the storm.
-Surface winds move counterclockwise.
-The cold front advances faster than the center of the storm, and the warm front advances more slowly than the center.
-The entire cyclone moves from west to east.
-Surface winds move counterclockwise.
-The cold front advances faster than the center of the storm, and the warm front advances more slowly than the center.
-The entire cyclone moves from west to east.
What is occlusion in a midlatitude cyclone?
-Occlusion is the process by which rain from a cyclone obscures visibility.
-Occlusion is the process by which clouds from a cyclone run out of rain.
-Occlusion is the process by which a cold front overtakes a warm front.
-Occlusion is the process by which a warm front overtakes a cold front.
Occlusion is the process by which a cold front overtakes a warm front.
When do midlatitude cyclones stop producing storms?
-When the warm front has completely taken over the cold front
-When the cold front has completely taken over the warm front
-When the cyclone enters a region of limited heat energy
-When the cyclone enters a region of limited surface water supply
When the cold front has completely taken over the warm front
When a cold front approaches, air pressure will initially __________ due to the displacement and uplift of __________ air.
- increase; warm
-increase; cold
-decrease; warm
-decrease; cold
decrease; warm
The severity of storm activity along a cold front is __________ than that along most warm fronts because the rate of uplift is __________ along a cold front.
- less; faster
- greater; faster
-less; slower
-greater; slower
greater; faster
What is a tropical cyclone?
-a high-pressure disturbance that develops over warm, tropical waters
-a low-pressure disturbance that develops over warm, tropical waters
-a low-pressure disturbance that develops over cold, tropical waters
-a high-pressure disturbance that develops over cold, tropical waters
a low-pressure disturbance that develops over warm, tropical waters
Where are tropical cyclones found?
-at lower and middle latitudes
-at middle and upper latitudes
-at middle latitudes
-at lower latitudes
-at lower and upper latitudes
at lower and middle latitudes
Which of the following names mean "tropical cyclone"?
Choose all that apply.
-typhoon
-monsoon
-tornado
-hurricane
-cyclone
-typhoon
-hurricane
-cyclone
Why is heavy rain associated with hurricane formation?
-Rising moist air warms. As air warms, water condenses and eventually falls.
-Rising dry air warms. As air warms, water condenses and eventually falls.
-Rising dry air cools. As air cools, water is collected and eventually falls.
-Rising moist air warms. As air warms, water is collected and eventually falls.
-Rising moist air cools. As air cools, water condenses and eventually falls.
Rising moist air cools. As air cools, water condenses and eventually falls.
Why is warm, moist air considered the "fuel" for a hurricane?
-Air warms as it rises. As air warms, liquid water will evaporate out as water vapor. Evaporation releases heat, providing energy to the hurricane.
-Air warms as it rises. As air warms, water vapor will condense out as liquid water. Condensation absorbs heat, providing energy to the hurricane.
-Air cools as it rises. As air cools, liquid water will evaporate out as water vapor. Evaporation absorbs heat, providing energy to the hurricane.
-Air cools as it rises. As air cools, water vapor will condense out as liquid water. Condensation releases heat, providing energy to the hurricane.
-Air cools as it rises. As air cools, liquid water will evaporate out as water vapor. Evaporation releases heat, providing energy to the hurricane.
Air cools as it rises. As air cools, water vapor will condense out as liquid water. Condensation releases heat, providing energy to the hurricane.
How big can the diameter of a hurricane become?
-5 miles
-500 miles
-5000 miles
-50 miles
500 miles
What other natural hazards are associated with tornado formation?
-thunderstorms
-volcanoes
-earthquakes
-hurricanes
thunderstorms
Why does air spiral parallel to Earth's surface during initial stages of tornado formation?
-Because of magnetism, surface winds move more quickly than winds higher in the air column.
-Because of friction, surface winds move more quickly than winds higher in the air column.
-Because of friction, surface winds move more slowly than winds higher in the air column.
-Because of magnetism, surface winds move more slowly than winds higher in the air column.
Because of friction, surface winds move more slowly than winds higher in the air column.
What can cause the horizontally rotating air spiral to become the vertical spiral of a tornado?
-Updrafts associated with thunderstorm clouds can tilt the horizontal column of spinning air.
-Updrafts associated with hurricane clouds can tilt the horizontal column of spinning air.
-Precipitation associated with hurricane clouds can tilt the horizontal column of spinning air.
-Precipitation associated with thunderstorm clouds can tilt the horizontal column of spinning air.
Updrafts associated with thunderstorm clouds can tilt the horizontal column of spinning air.
How are mesocyclones and tornadoes related?
- Mesocyclone is another name for a funnel cloud. A funnel cloud that touches the ground is called a tornado.
-Mesocyclones can turn into funnel clouds. A funnel cloud that touches the ground is called a tornado.
-Funnel clouds can turn into mesocyclones. A mesocyclone that touches the ground is called a tornado.
- Mesocyclone is another name for a tornado. A mesocyclone that touches the ground is called a tornado.
Mesocyclones can turn into funnel clouds. A funnel cloud that touches the ground is called a tornado.
Summer thunderstorms in the southern United States are usually produced by towering __________ clouds that form by __________.
- nimbostratus; convection
- nimbostratus; frontal uplift
-cumulonimbus; convection
-cumulonimbus; frontal uplift
-cumulonimbus; convergence
cumulonimbus; convection
Outputs generated by a system that encourage or discourage system operation are called __________.

-biotic and abiotic analyses
-positive and negative feedback
-steady-state equilibrium
-open and closed concepts
positive and negative feedback
The __________ passes through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England.

-Tropic of Capricorn
-prime meridian
-equator
-Tropic of Cancer
-international date line
prime meridian
The equator and the Tropic of Capricorn are __________.

-meridians of longitude
-meridians of latitude
-parallels of latitude
-parallels of longitude
-prime meridians
parallels of latitude
A __________ system such as Earth allows for inputs and outputs of energy, with virtually no inputs and outputs of physical matter.

-feedback
-closed
-open
-geographic
-energy
closed
A __________ is a simplified, idealized representation of the real world used to help us understand complex systems.

-feedback loop
-model
-lithosphere
-Earth surface process
-threshold
model
A computer-based processing tool for gathering, manipulating, and analyzing geographic information is called a __________.

-map projection
-geographic information system
-remote sensor
-closed system
-global positioning system
geographic information system
The atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere are examples of __________ systems.

-volcanic
-latitudinal
-abiotic
-longitudinal
-biotic
abiotic
__________ is the world standard for a consistent Universal Time.

-Daylight saving time
-Greenwich mean time
-The prime meridian
-Coordinated Universal Time
-Standard time
Coordinated Universal Time
Lines of latitude run __________ to each other.

-tangent
-diagonal
-parallel
-perpendicular
parallel
__________ is the ratio of the image on a map to that of the real world.

-Equivalence
-Mercator
-Cartography
-Scale
-Conformity
Scale
Numerous devastating wildfires have occurred over the last decade. As the fires burned, they dried the wet shrubs and green wood around the fire, thus providing more fuel for combustion. The greater the fire, the greater the availability of fuel becomes, and thus more fire is possible. This pathway is an example of __________.

-a steady-state equilibrium
- positive feedback
-a dynamic equilibrium
-negative feedback
negative feedback
Imagine leaving San Francisco, California, at 9 a.m. on a Monday and flying to New York, New York. Assuming your flight takes five hours, the local time when you arrive will be ________.

-7 a.m., Monday
-2 p.m., Monday
-11 a.m., Monday
-5 p.m., Monday
-1 a.m., Monday
5 p.m., Monday
A small circle has a center that coincides with the center of the Earth.
True
False
False
A person travelling westbound across the International Date Line must subtract one day from the calendar in order to keep an accurate record of the date.
True
False
False
A small scale map has less detail than a large scale map.
True
False
True
A system is any unordered, unrelated set of attributes that are not linked.
True
False
False
According to your text, the discipline of geography is spatial.
True
False
True
Understanding the size and shape of Earth is a primary goal of geodesy.
True
False
True
The whole world adjusts for daylight savings every year in much the same way as most of North America.
True
False
False
A great circle has a center that coincides with Earth's center.
True
False
True
A meridian is a line that connects all points along the same latitude.
True
False
False
If a world map shows Greenland and South America to be about the same size (area), it is quite possibly a Mercator projection.
True
False
True
A lapse rate is a change of ___________ with height.

-wind speed
-relative humidity
-pressure
-memory
-temperature
temperature
Suppose an air mass warms as it moves over a land surface, but no water vapor is added or lost. The relative humidity will ___________, while the specific humidity will ____________.

-not change/fall
-not change/not change
-fall/rise
-fall/not change
-rise/not change
fall/not change
________________clouds are the cloud type that is most associated with thunderstorm development.

-Altocumulus
-Altostratus
-Cumulonimbus
-Cirrocumulus
-Stratus
Cumulonimbus
____________ is most likely when the environmental lapse rate is large (for example, 12 Celsius degrees/1000 m).

-Armageddon
-Atmospheric instability
-Radiation fog
-Advection fog
-Suppression of condensation
Atmospheric instability
Descending air always warms at the _____________.

-moist adiabatic lapse rate
-It can't be known.
-environmental lapse rate
-dry adiabatic lapse rate
-speed of sound
dry adiabatic lapse rate
The ____________ is the ratio of the actual amount of water vapor in the atmosphere to the maximum amount of water possible at that temperature.

-relative dew point
-relative humidity
-specific humidity
-dew point
-absolute humidity
relative humidity
The cloud type _______, which is made up of ice crystals, is found in the Earth's atmosphere at the highest elevations above the Earth's surface.

-stratus
-altostratus
-cirrostratus
-cumulus
-cirrus
cirrus
A(n) _________ is an aggregation of tiny moisture droplets and ice crystals suspended in the air.

-cloud
-Bergeron
-snow
-cyclone
-evaporation
cloud
Clouds are usually classified on the basis of __________ and __________.

-altitude/shape
-altitude/process of formation
-altitude/temperature
-wetness and source region
-size/shape
altitude/shape
Clouds that are flat and layered are in the general group called __________.

-cirroform
-cumuliform
-stratiform
-cumulus
stratiform
__________ fog forms where air in one place migrates to another place where conditions are right for saturation.

-Saturation
-Hill top
-Advection
-Down slope
-Radiation
Advection
The foggiest region of the United States is the ___________.

-Rocky Mountains
-Pacific northwest
-Great Lakes region
-Southeast
-Atlantic northeast
Pacific northwest
In unstable conditions, a parcel of air will __________ than the surrounding air.

-rise because it is warmer
-fall because it is warmer
-fall because it is colder
-rise because it is colder
rise because it is warmer
Assume a parcel of air at sea level (0 meters) has a temperature of 30 d°C. Further, assume that this parcel is forced upward to 2000 meters elevation, where the surrounding air temperature is 6 °C. These conditions would be described as __________________. (Note: There are no clouds present in this scenario.)

-stable, because the parcel is cooler than the surrounding air
-unstable, because the parcel is cooler than the surrounding air
-unstable, because the parcel is warmer than the surrounding air
-stable, because the parcel is warmer than the surrounding air
unstable, because the parcel is warmer than the surrounding air
What cloud type is described as "wispy" and "feathery?"

-cirrus
-cumulus
-altostratus
-altocumulus
-stratus
cirrus
Water covers 71% of Earth by area.
True
False
True
Worldwide changes in sea level are called outgassing.
True
False
False
The sum of ice sheets, glaciers, and subsurface groundwater accounts for more than 99 percent of Earth's freshwater.
True
False
True
Lake Baykal, located in Siberian Russia, is the single largest body of freshwater on Earth.
True
False
True
The transition from liquid water to ice or ice to liquid water is called sublimation.
True
False
False
The water vapor content in the air is called humidity.
True
False
True
The temperature at which air achieves saturation is called the sublimation temperature.
True
False
False
The dry adiabatic rate (DAR) is the rate at which an expanding, unsaturated parcel of dry air cools.
True
False
True
Air is saturated if it contains all of the water vapor that it can hold at a given temperature. This is also when the relative humidity reaches 100 percent.
True
False
True
Adiabatic describes the cooling, but not the warming rates for a parcel of expanding or compressing air.
True
False
False
Water's "wetness," and many of its other important properties, are the result of the polarity of water molecules.
True
False
True
Assuming no change in the actual amount of water vapor in the air, as air temperature rises, relative humidity decreases.
True
False
True
The difference between the dry adiabatic rate and the moist adiabatic rate is due to the release of latent heat as water vapor condenses.
True
False
True
The moisture droplets in clouds average about 300 micrometers in diameter.
True
False
False
evaporation fog
forms over water bodies as water vapor comes in contact with the cold air above
radiation fog
forms at night over cold, moist ground
valley fog
forms as dense, cold air settles into low spots and depressions
advection fog
can form as moist air moves horizontally over a cold ocean surface
upslope fog
forms a stratus layer of fog due to adiabatic cooling in mountain areas
vapor pressure
generally measured in millibars
specific humidity
can be measured in grams of water per kilogram of air
relative humidity
the percentage of water vapor in the air compared to capacity
condensation nuclei
natural pollution required for cloud formation
dew point
the temperature at which air is saturated
__________ is the short-term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere.

-Weather
-Advection
-Meteorology
-Climate
weather
_____________ is the long-term average of weather conditions in a region.

-Bergeron
-Advection
-Meteorology
-Climate
Climate
__________ is the type of lifting that involves air being forcibly pushed up a mountain slope.

-Convection lifting
-Convergent lifting
-Orographic lifting
-Frontal lifting
Orographic lifting
A(n) __________ front is produced when a cold front overtakes a cyclonic warm front, wedging beneath it.

-stationary front
-wave cyclone
-midlatitude cyclone
-occluded front
occluded front
Tornadoes are characterized by ________ atmospheric pressure at the core.

-moderately low
-extremely high
-extremely low
-moderately high
extremely low
A(n) __________ front commonly results in the formation of towering cumulonimbus clouds.

-orographic front
-midlatitude front
-cold front
-warm front
-rain shadow
cold front
__________ fronts travel faster than __________ fronts.

-Midlatitude/tropical
-Cold/warm
-Stationary/occluded
-Warm/cold
Cold/warm
Cyclonic storms and air masses move across the United States along __________, which shift in latitude with the Sun and the seasons.

-squall lines
-wave cyclones
-storm tracks
-occluded fronts
-chinook winds
storm tracks
_____________ air masses form only in the Northern Hemisphere and are most developed in winter and cold-weather conditions.

-Maritime polar
-Maritime tropical
-Continental tropical
-Continental polar
-Maritime equatorial
Continental polar
What state has the highest average annual occurrence of thunderstorms in the United States?

-Florida
-Oklahoma
-Texas
-Maryland
Florida
Weather data needed for synoptic analysis includes barometric pressure, dew-point temperature, wind speed, and sea-surface temperature.
True
False
False
As a result of orographic lifting, precipitation occurs on the windward slopes of mountain ranges and a rain shadow occurs on the leeward slopes.
True
False
True
A midlatitude cyclone forms because of conflict between contrasting air masses.
True
False
True
Mesocyclones rotate vertically within a supercell cloud and can reach a height of thousands of meters.
True
False
True
As anybody who has seen the movie "Twister" or "The Wizard of Oz" knows, tornadic winds, while strong, are not strong enough to lift cattle, trucks, houses, or wicked witches into the air.
True
False
False
Tornadoes with a Fujita rating of F5 are less likely to cause severe damage than the rarer and far more powerful F1 tornadoes.
True
False
False
Precipitation at Point C is likely to be higher than at A or B.
True
False
False
The eyewall in this storm is located in closest proximity to A, rather than B or C.
True
False
True
Chinook winds are the cool, upward airflows characteristic of the windward side of mountains.
True
False
False
convectional lifting
involves air moving over a warm surface
frontal lifting
involves collision of air masses of significantly different temperatures
convergent lifting
involves collision of air masses as they move into a low pressure
orographic lifting
involves collision of an air mass into a mountain slope
hydrographic lifting
no such lifting mechanism exists
high pressure, N Hemisphere
pressure & rotation
anticyclonic, clockwise
low pressure, N Hemisphere
pressure & rotation
cyclonic, counterclockwise
high pressure, S Hemisphere
pressure & rotation
anticyclonic, counterclockwise
low pressure, S Hemisphere
pressure & rotation
cyclonic, clockwise
heat
form of energy that flows from one object to another
temperature
measure of the average kinetic energy of individual molecules in matter
heat energy
energy that is added to or removed from a system of substance
Kelvin absolute zero
0
Celsius absolute zero
-273
Farenheit absolute zero
459.4
Kelvin H20 melts
273
Celsius H20 melts
0
Farenheit H20 melts
32
Kelvin H20 Boils
373
Celsius H20 Boils
100
Farenheit H20 Boils
212
the thermistor for measuring temperature is place at ____ above the surface
1.2m
four principal temperature controls
-latitude
-altitude
-cloud cover
average surface temp of Earth
15C, 59F
hottest temps on Earth
30N & 30S (subtropical highs)
what is the greatest temperature moderators
the oceans
specific heat
heat capacity of a substance
what cools and warms much slower than land?
water
sea-surface temperatures: in July, warm temperatures shift...
North
marine effect
Locations proximal to the sea experience the affects of the ocean's nature to moderate the climate
continental effect
Locations further inland experience greater temperature ranges between maximum and minimum temperatures on a diurnal and annual basis
hottest places on Earth occur in ___
Northern Hemisphere deserts
wind chill combines
cold, wind speed
heat index combines
heat, humidity
wind
horizontal motion of air across Earth's surface
winds are named for
direction from which they originate
driving factors within the atmosphere
-gravity
-pressure gradient force
-Coriolis force
-friction force
Coriolis force
defective force that causes air and water direction to be altered because of Earth's rotation
pressure gradient force
pressure moves from high pressure to low pressure
when does the Coriolis Force intensify?
with faster moving objects
ITCZ is characterized by
warm & rainy
what phenomena distrubtes energy from the tropics to the poles?
hadley cells--they help distribute energy to energy defecient areas
what moves surplus energy from the tropics to the poles?
winds and oceans
what do winds and oceans move and where?
a surplus of energy, from the tropics to the poles
Why would San Francisco not be as good of an example of a city with a climate cooled by Land-Sea Breeze?
-urban heat island phenomenon
-built environment blocks most of breeze