List the four elements refineries use in a processing scheme. Give a description of how the element will affect the processing scheme.
-Equipment in place
-Available crude oil
-Demand for products
Name the five general classifications of crude oil feedstock.
paraffin base (alkanes), naphthene base (cyclic alkanes), asphalt base (alkanes and aromatics), mixed base, and aromatic base
How does API Gravity affect the value of crude oil?
Increase in API Gravity corresponds to a decrease in specific gravity.
How does Sulfur Content affect the value of crude oil?
Sulfur content is measure by percent sulfur by weight and if the sulfur content is over 0.5% than it requires more processing.
What are the four organic chemical classes that either naturally occur in crude oil or are produced in processing?
Paraffins- normal branched alkanes (C1-C70)
Naphthenes- cycloparaffins and cycloalkanes with various paraffinic functional groups
Aromatic- Includes single and multiple rings with paraffinic and olefinic functional groups
Olefins- Alkenes that do not naturally occur in the crude, but are produced during processing
What is initially separated from crude oil when it goes through the first step in refiner flow?
There are seven.
Butanes, kerosene, lighter wet gas, heavy naphtha, atmospheric gas oil, unstabilized light naphtha, topped crude, reduced crude
What is Vacuum Reduced Crude Bottoms sold as when a refinery does not have a \"coker\"?
Heavy Fuel Oil or Asphalt
Cracking breaks larger molecules into small lower molecular weight molecules with boiling points in gas and fuel ranges.
What class of organic molecules are produced by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking?
Hydrocracking produces saturate molecule while catalytic cracking produces unsaturated products.
Heavy Naphtha streams are move to catalytic reformer and eventually are used in what commercial product?
The catalytic reformer improves their octane numbers and then they are blended into regular and premium gasolines
What is an \"alkylate\"?
An alkylate is a high octane product produced by isobutene and olefins with sulfuric or hydrofluoric acids, which creates isoparaffins (alkylate). It is one fo the cleanest burning gasoline stocks.
Describe why gasoline is referred to as a blended product?
Because it is composed of over 400 products depending on what each manufacture adds to it to bump up the octane rates.
What is reformulated gasoline?
Reformulated gasolines are designed to be as clean burning as high methanol content fuels, yet with a reduced level of aromatics, especially carcinogens.
Describe how consumers or economics may drive marketing to sell the same product for different applications. Give examples...
Since the same liquids can be used for different things, depending on demand of the public and customers the same product might but out there for two completely different applications. For example, concrete sealers weren\'t needed until concrete driveways came about, so refineries would sell to them to make sealer while they also sell the same product to someone else that needed it for paint thinner.
Describe how consumers or economics may drive marketing to sell different products for the same application over time or in different areas of the country. Give examples...
When a company uses a certain refinery product for its designed purpose, but customers complain about a bad test for example charcoal starter, the company will go to the refinery and ask for a different product and will sell this new compound under the same label and hope it fixes the previous problems
List three commercial applications that would fall into the ASTM Class of \"Light Petroleum Distallate\"
-Cigarette lighter fluid
List three commercial applications that would fall into the ASTM Class of \"Medium Petroleum Distillate\"
List three commercial applications that would fall into the ASTM Class of \"Heavy Petroleum Distillates\"
List three commercial applications that would fall into the ASTM Class of \"Isoparaffinic Products\"
-Some charcoal starters
List three items that would fall into the ASTM Class of \"Oxygenated Products\"
What ASTM Classification can be found in NCR paper?
Isoparaffinic Mixtures can be found in NCR paper.
Describe how NCR paper is used.
This is used to replace carbon copy paper, carbonless copy paper is used to transfer writing. The sheets contain paper that is coated with micro-encapsulated dye, ink, or reactive clay that upon pressure the capsules will \"spill\" their ink making the copy.
How is \"Gum\" turpentine derived?
Gum turpentine is derived from steam distillation of the sap from living pine trees
Characterize the difference between gasoline used as an accelerant vs. turpentine used as an accelerant
Turpentine used as an accelerant burns much slower than gasoline and also spreads very slowly compared to gasoline.
Why is the finding of turpentine usually held to be suspect?
suspect because turpentine is found in pine which is everywhere! Also, the same things put in commercial products are in the samples of wood, there is not much analysis can do to identify it as a manufactures product verse a trees product.
Specialty solvents \"toluol\" and \"xylol\" may be used as accelerants, but their recovery and conclusive determination may be compromised by what issue?
These solvents are found in many products or artifacts that have been through an sort of manufacturing process. For example, athletic shoes have many synthetic solvents in them and when they are tested for ignitable liquids these synthetic materials get in the way of the chromatogram and the only way to confirm that it is the shoe and not ignitable liquid is to send in a comparison sample with it.
Who should first inquire about the presence of specialty solvents in a fire scene and why?
First inquire about the presence of specialty solvents should be approached by the investigator because if they ask if the suspect had used anything specific say, insecticide, in the past few days to backup all information and cover all of the bases for his or her investigation. It might help them later.
Name four of the most common Low Molecular Weight solvents which may be used as an accelerant.
methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone