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Intro to Psych Exam 2
Terms in this set (74)
What is conciousnes?
A persons subjective experience of the world and the mind
Why is consciousness hard to study?
Everyone has different experiences
What is decartes view of mind body problem?
He believed that the mind and body are separate
What are the four basic properties of consciousness?
Intentionality: directed toward an object
Unity: resistance to division
Selectivity: the capacity to include some objects but not others
Transience: the tendency to change (the mind wanders)
What are the levels of consciousness?
Minimal consciousness, full consciousness, self-consciousness
What does thought suppression and the rebound effect do?
When trying to mentally control something you avoid a thought but the tendency of the thought to return increases
What is freuds consciousness
If place for all the wanted desires exist
What are the three main categories of altered state of consciousness
Sleeping/dreaming, drug use and abuse, Hypnosis
Name the sleeping disorders and what happens with them
Insomnia, sleep apnea, sleepwalking, narcolepsy, sleep paralysis, night terrors
What are five major characteristics that distinguish dreaming from waking consciousness?
Intense emotion, illogical thought, meaningful sensation, uncritical acceptance, difficulty remembering
What is James Lange theory?
See stimuli, heart pounding from sympathetic system, then emotion comes
What is Cannon Bard theory?
emotion happens the same time as heart pounding
What is schachter-singer two factor theory?
Heart pounding plus logical sense, and then comes emotion
What role does the amygdala and Joseph Ledoux have to do with emotions?
FastPath-thalamus straight to amygdala
Slower path - Thalmus to cortex to amygdala
What part of the brain is used to understand others emotions?
What is associative learning?
The associations between various stimuli and responses
Two types are classical conditioning and operant conditioning
What is classical conditioning
Stimulus that does not automatically give a response is paired with something that always elicits a response and after continued pairing it elicits a response
What is the process of classical conditioning?
A neutral stimulus is paired with a unconditioned stimulus leads to unconditioned response
After continued pairing the unconditioned stimulus becomes conditions and elicit a conditioned response
What is the main factor that guides the likelihood that an association will be acquired in classical conditioning?
The unconditioned stimulus consistently paired with a neutral stimulus
Two possible outcomes of an association due to classical conditioning
Extinction and generalization
An active process
The learner actively operates on their environment
What are the four consequences that affect the likelihood of behavior in operate conditioning
Positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment
Something good gets added likelihood of behavior increases
Something bad gets taken away likelihood of behavior increases
Something bad gets added likelihood of behavior decreases
Something good gets taken away likelihood of behavior decreases
Giving a child a cupcake so they will finish their dinner
Hitting the snooze button alarm clock
In the store a child pitches a fit dad gets angry and gives the child candy
Child experiences positive reinforcement
Dad experiences negative reinforcement
Child draws on the walls and mom gets mad and yells at child
Kid comes home late for curfew so parents take away driving privileges
What is cognitive learning
A higher level learning involving thinking knowing understanding in anticipation
List some examples of cognitive learning
Cognitive maps, Latent learning, puzzle boxes, ah ha moments, observational learning
What are cognitive maps and what higher order mental ability is highlighted by the use of cognitive maps?
Internal representation of an area
Underlies ability to choose alternate path to the same goal
What is an example of a Thorndike puzzle box
Animal enters a cage with a lever that opens the cage
Animal somehow pull the lever and open the cage and is positively reinforced
Animal learns to pull on lever to open cage for positive reinforcement
What is insight learning?
Learning by chance
Pigeon in a box with a small platform and a banana
What is a model according to Bandura's theory of observational learning?
A child who observes violence towards an object has a tendency to model the violence
What are the four steps of successful modeling?
Pay attention, remember what is done, be able to reproduce the behavior, understand if the model was rewarded or punished from the behavior
What are some key strategies for regulating your emotional states?
Emotional regulation and reappraisal
What is Universality hypothesis and who made it?
Emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone Darwin
What is the facial feedback hypothesis
Emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify
In what ways do you are sincere and insincere expressions leak out of our face
Morphology symmetry duration temporal patterning
What are display rules
Controlling our emotions
When where and how to show an expression
What is motivation
The purpose for or psychological cause of an action
What is drive
And internal state that signals psychological need
What are Maslows hierarchy of needs
Psychological needs safety and security needs, belongings and love needs, esteem needs, need for self actualization
What roles do lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus play in the states of hunger
Lateral receive the hunger signals and ventromedial receive the hunger off signals
What are three types of nervosa
Believe me I've been eating, anorexia intense fear of being fat, obesity Romanoff
What role do hormones play in sexual motivation
Hormone DH EA is the onset for sexual desire
Testosterone for men, estrogen for women
What are the findings of Masters and Johnson regarding sex
The phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
What is intrinsic an extrinsic motivation?
Intrinsic personal response, ask transit benefits someone else
What is encoding
Changing info into usable form
Elaborative encoding, visual imagery encoding, organizational encoding
What is sensory memory?
The feeling of your shirt on your back
What is Eidetic memory
What is working memory?
A mental scratchpad
What is short-term memory?
Storage of smaller months of information
Magic number 7+ or -2
Chunking can increase memory capacity
What is consolidation?
The change from short-term memory so long term memory
In the hippocampus
What is procedural memory?
Memory for learned action
Not easily forgotten, like riding a bike
What are two types of declarative memory?
Semantic memory and episodic memory
What does semantic memory mean
Memory of facts and specific knowledge
What is episodic memory
Memories of your own personal experiences
How do memory keys work to improve recall of information?
The state you learn something in influences irretrievable of that information
What is an example of flashbulb memory?
What were you doing on 911
What is proactive interference?
Earlier learning and if it's retrieval of new learning
What is retroactive interference
New learning inhibits retrieval earlier learning
What are some encoding strategies?
Numonics, teach it to another person, but in a song, use your whole mind to remember
What are some retrieval strategies
Let it come to you, think about how you learn the information, visual memory, phone a friend what they say
The global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment
Five things measured on an IQ test
Fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual spatial processing, working memory
I Q calculation formula
Mental age divided by call logical age times 100
Mechanical solutions:Trial and error, by rote
Solutions by understanding: deeper comprehension of a problem
Heuristics: role of thumb problem-solving
Tendencies to get hung up on the wrong solutions
What is intuition?
Quick impulsive thought
Monty Hall problem
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