AP World Chapter 18

Terms in this set (77)

- American industrialization began with New England textiles (1820s).
- Explosive growth after the Civil War.
- By 1914, the United States was the world's leading industrial power.
- Closely linked to European industrialization; Europeans provided around one-third of the capital investment.
- U.S. government played an important role through tax breaks, land grants to railroads, laws making formation of corporations easy, absence of clear regulation, and encouraged development of very large enterprises.
- Pioneered mass production techniques.
- Creation of a "culture of consumption" through advertising, catalogs, and department stores.
- Self-made industrialists became cultural heroes (Ford, Carnegie, Rockefeller).
- Serious social divisions rose; growing gap between rich and poor, constant labor of the working class, creation of vast slums, and growing labor protest.
- Sometimes erupted in violence,but no major political party emerged to represent the working class.
- Socialism (especially Marxism) didn't have great appeal for Americans. Even in the Great Depression (1930s), no major socialist movement emerged.
- Socialism was labeled fundamentally "un-American" and didn't appeal to American workers because: U.S. union organizations were relatively conservative, the American Federation of Labor focused on skilled workers, the population was extremely heterogeneous, workers had a higher standard of living than did their European counterparts, and the middle-class dreamed of white-collar workers.
- "Populists" denounced corporate interests, but populism had little appeal in growing industrial areas.
- "Progressives" were more successful, especially after 1900, and aimed to remedy the ills of industrialization.
Was an absolute monarchy, with the greatest state control of anywhere in the Western world.
- In 1900: there was no national parliament, no legal political parties, no nationwide elections. Dominated by a titled nobility (many highly Westernized).
- The state, not society, usually initiated change.
- Peter the Great (r. 1689-1725) was an early example of "transformation from above."
- Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796) also worked to Europeanize Russian culture and intellectual life.
- Most Russians were serfs until the state directed freeing of serfs in 1861.
- Was stimulated by Russia's defeat in the Crimean War. Set out to improve Russia's economic and industrial backwardness.
- Russian Industrial Revolution was launched by the 1890s.
- Focused on railroads and heavy industry. Had substantial foreign investment. Industry was concentrated in a few major cities. Fewer but larger factories than was typical in Western Europe.
- Growing middle class disliked Russia's deep conservatism, sought greater role in political life, but they were dependent on the state for contracts and jobs. Also relied on the state to suppress worker radicalism.
- Russian working class (only about 5 percent of the population) rapidly radicalized. Worked under harsh conditions, had no legal outlet for grievances, and commenced large-scale strikes.
- Marxist socialism appealed to some educated Russians, gave them hope for the future. Founded the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (1898). Got involved in workers' education, union organizing, and revolutionary action.
- Major insurrection broke out in 1905, after defeat in war by Japan. In Moscow and St. Petersburg, workers went on strike, created their own representative councils ("soviets"). Had peasant uprisings, student demonstrations, non-Russian nationalities revolted, and military mutiny.
- Brutally suppressed, but forced the tsar's regime to make reforms. Granted a constitution, legalized trade unions and political parties, and created a national assembly (the Duma).
- Limited political reforms failed to pacify the radicals or bring stability. Growing belief that only a revolution would help.
- World War I provided the revolutionary moment. Russian Revolution broke out in 1917. Brought the most radical of the socialist groups to power—the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin).
- Only in Russia did industrialization lead to violent social revolution