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165 terms

Science 7th Grade Final Review

7th grade final review
STUDY
PLAY
Cells
Basic unit of structure and function of a living thing
Chloroplast
Contains the green pigment called chlorophyll, the food-making site for a plant, and helps trap the sun's energy.
Cell Membrane
Outer layer, boundary of all cells, protects and allows material in and out of the cell. It is also known as being selectively permeable.
Mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)
Nucleus
control center of the cell, contains DNA.
Cellular Respiration
Combining glucose and oxygen to release Carbon dioxide, H2O, ATP.
Formula for Cellular Respiration
C6 H12 O6 + O2--->H2O+ATP
Osmosis
Special type of diffusion by which water passes in and out of the cell(High-->Low)
Bionmial Nomenclature
Refers to an organism's Genus and Species.
Autotroph
Organism that can make its own food from simple substances
Heterotroph
an organism that cannot make its own food
Prokaryote
No Nucleus
Eukaryote
Has a Nucleus
Monerans
No Nucleus
Unicellular
Borth Autotroph or Heterotroph
Examples:Bacteria
Protists
Has Nucleus
Mostly Unicellular
Both Autotroph or Heterotroph
Examples:Algae, Ameba.
Fungi
Has Nucleus
Mostly Multicellular
Heterotroph
Examples:Mushrooms, Mold, Mildew
Plants
Has Nucleus
Multicellular
Autotroph
Examples:Grass, Moss, Trees
Animals
Has Nucleus
Multicellular
Heterotroph
Cow, Humans, Moose, Dog
7 steps of classification system
Kingdom--->Phylum--->Class--->Order--->Family--->Genus--->Species
Photosynthesis Formula
CO2 + H2O + sun light energy ----> glucose + O2
Anther
the part of the stamen that contains pollen
Parts of the Pistil
stigma, style, and ovary
Parts of the Stamen
anther and filament
Stamen
the male reproductive organ of a flower
Pistil
The female reproductive part of a flower
Seeds of a flower
Seeds become a fertilized eggs
Oxygen
The Gaseous waste a leaf excretes during photosynthesis
Cartilage
tough, flexible connective tissue that supports, gives shape and prevents rubbing to the body parts
Tendons
Connects muscle to bone
Ligaments
Connects bone to bone
Cardiac
The type of muscle the heart is made up of
Smooth Muscle
The type of muscle found in the digestive system
Examples of Joints
Ball in socket(located in shoulder and hips)
Hinge(Knee and Elbow)
Backbone
Also known as vertebrae
Kneecap
Also known as patella
Collarbone
Also known as clavicial
Skull
Also known as Cranium
Epigolottis
Keeps food out of the trachea
Mechanical Digestion
Physical Action of breaking down food into small pieces...happens in the mouth and stomach
Mouth
Chemical digestion of sugars, teeth mechanically digest. It uses saliva to break down food
Stomach
Mechanical and Chemical digestion. Uses acid to break down food
Small Intestines
Most Digestion takes place here. Chemical Digestion. Contains villi and absorbs nutrients.
Large Intestines
Water is absorbed and undigested food is stored
Liver
Produces bile and breaks down excess amino acids
Function of Valves
Makes sure blood doesn't backflow
Veins
Sends blood back to the heart
Arteries
Sends Blood away from the heart
Capillaries
Connects veins and arteries, thinnest vessel, materials exchange.
Type O Blood
Universal Donor
Type AB
Universal Receiver
platelets
forms bloodclots/prevents bloodloss
red blood cells
contains hemoglobin/carries oxygen or carbon dioxide easily
white blood cells
acts as a defensive system/releases antibodies
circulation of blood
right atruim--->valve--->right ventricle--->pumonary artery--->lungs--->pulmonary vein--->left atruim--->valve--->left ventricle--->valve---->aorta--->rest of the body--->vena cava--->right atruim
respiratory system
the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide and water
windpipe
trachea
throat
pharynx
voicebox
larynx
excretory system
process by which waste is removed
kidneys
filters blood and creates urine
urinary bladder
sac that stores urine
ureter
tube that conducts urine to the urinary bladder
urethra
tube through which urine passes out of the body
cerebrum
part of the brain that controls the senses, though, and conscious activities. Right side=Artistic. Left side=logic and math.
cerebellum
balance and posture
medulla
base of brainstem, controls involuntary body processes(blinking, heartbeat, breathing, ect.)
reflex
automatic reaction to a stimulus(involuntary)
thyroid
thyroxin, controls metabolic rate
thymus
Thymosin, controls immune system
pancreas
Insulin, glucagion...regulates sugar blood level in blood
adrenals
epinephrine(adrenaline)...fight or flight
fertilization
joining of the egg and the sperm nuclei
uterus
fetus develop here
male sex cells
called sperm and made in the testes
female sex cells
called eggs and made in the ovaries
zygote
fertilized egg
embryo
organism that is in the uterus before eight weeks
fetus
organism that is in the uterus after 8 weeks
fallopian tube/oviduct
where fertilization takes place
umbilical cord
provides the baby with nutrients ad oxygen while inside the mother.
heredity
passing of traits from parents to offspring
physical appearance
an organism's phenotype
genetic make up
organism's genotype
dominant trait
stronger trait-capital letter
recessive trait
the weaker trait/hidden-lower case
hybrid
mix of recessive and dominant traits
pure
either all recessive or dominant
Gregor Mendel
father of genetics
DNA full name
Deoxyrybo nucleic acid
Structure of DNA
double helix(made of nitrogen bases)
James Watson and Francis Crick
discovered DNA's double helix
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information that causes a new trait to be inherited
thymine
pairs up with adenine
guanine
pairs up with cytosine
evolution
change in a species over time
Charles Darwin
the father of evolution
fossil
imprint or remains of plants or animals existed in the past.
natural selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
survival of the fittest
adaptations
traits that help an organism survive
vestigial organ
left over organs that no longer function
homologus structure
similar bone structure shown between different organisms
Population
group of the same type of organism living together.
community
living part of any ecosystem
biotic
living
abiotic
non-living
symbiosis
relationship in which an organism lives on or in another organism
mutualism
+,+
parasitism
+,-
commensalism
+,o
competition
organism stuggling against one another for limited resources
predation
one organism hunts, kills, and eats another
habitat
place in which an organism lives
niche
rold of an organism in its community or environment
producer
something that produces its own food
consumer
an organism that obtains energy by feeding directly or indirectly on producers
decomposer
An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
the sun
primary source for ALL living things
herbivores
eats plants
carnivores
eats meat
omnivores
eats both plants and meats
protons
charge:positive
location:nucleus
mass:1.0073
neutrons
charge:None
location:nucleus
mass:1.0087
electrons
charge:negative
location:outside nucleus
mass:0.0006
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
protons + neutrons
isotope
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
properties of metals
luster, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat,electricity
properties of non-metals
dull,brittle,poor conductor/good insulator, solid liquid or gas
periods
horizontal rows in the periodic table
groups/families
The vertical columns of the periodic table
alkali metals
Group 1, 1 electron in outer level, very reactive, soft, silver, shiny, low density; Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
alkaline earth metals
metallic elements in group 2 of the periodic table which are harder than the alkali metals and are also less reactive
transition metals
Groups 3-12, 1-2 electrons in the outer energy level, less reactive than alsali-earth metals, shiny, good conductor of thermal energy and electrical current, high density
halogens
group 17; contains nonmetals; 7 electrons in its outermost energy level; very reactive; poor conductors of electric current; never in its uncombined form in nature; combine with most metals to form salts
noble gases
one of the elements of group 18 of the periodic table(helium, neon,argon, krypton, xenon, and radon); noble gases are unreactive
valence electrons
electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
speed/velocity
rate of an object's motion.
acceleration
rate of change in velocity
momentum
mass of an object times its velocity, determines how difficult it is to stop the objects motion
sliding friction
friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another
MOST FRICTION
rolling friction
friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface
Fluid Friction
friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid..air resistance
inertia
the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force
newton's 2nd law of motion
force=mass(acceleration)
every action
has an equal and opposite reaction
weight
measure of the force of attraction between objects due to gravity
law of universal gravitation
all matter pulls toward each other; dependent on mass and distance
work:
force acting over a distance to move an object
power
rate at which work is done or energy is used
inclined plane
ramp, stairs
screw
lid, screw
pulley
bike chain, blinds, clothes lines
wheel and axle
doorknob, bike, tire
wedge
knife blade, axe blade, doorstop, nail
1st class lever
seesaw, scissors, crowbarFulcrum in middle
2nd class lever
wheel barrow, door, nutcrackerresistance in middle
3rd class lever
hammer, fishing pole, rake, shovel
chemical
energy stored in the bonds between atoms
thermal
energy contained in the movement of atoms
nuclear
energy contained in the nucleus of an atom
mechanical
energy of moving objects
electromagnetic
energy contained in moving electrical charges
kinetic energy
energy of motion
potential energy
energy of position, the potential to do work
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can never be created or destroyed...everything has energy