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Franco- Russian Dual Alliance (le cauchemar des coalitions)


Bismarck is fired, William II refuses to renew the Reinsurance Treaty


Reinsurance Treaty


Triple Alliance with Italy

1881, 1884

Dreikaiserbund, Three Emperor's League- Austria, Russia, Germany


Dual alliance (Austro- German Treaty)


Congress of Berlin, ending the Russo- Turkish war of the Balkans

1877- 1878

Russo Turkish war over the Balkans


Treaty of Frankfurt (Feb. 26) , ending the Franco- Prussian war, Creation of the German Empire


France pays off war indemnity of 5 billion francs, starts rebuilding their army


Imperial Constitution


Military Reforms in Prussia, prior to the Danish War


Danish war

August 1865

Convention of Gastein ending the Danish war with Schleswig to Prussia and Holstein to Austria, Prussia accuses Austria of breaking this treaty when there was a pro-Augustenburg nationalist meeting in Holstein

June 1866

Austro- Prussian war, seven weeks war, over prominence in Germany

August 23, 1866

Treaty of Prague


Treaty of London, Frederick of Augustenburg's father renounced claims to the Duchies of Schleswig/ Holstein


The Italian war, Prussia did nothing but William I increased military bc he knew he needed an upperhand over Austria: 6 month training to 3 years


Bismarck is appointed as Minister- President

1870- 1871

Franco Prussian war, ending battle = Sedan in 1870, Kruup cannon, 75 mm barrel


Prussia invades Schleswig, Fredrick VII of Denmark dies

July 13, 1870

Ems Telegram, Benedetti

July 14, 1870

Edited version of the Ems Telegram released on Bastille Day

July 19, 1870

French declaration of war

May 1866

Belgium Document indicating Napoleon III's want of the Rhine signed

July 20, 1870

UK is okay with the Franco- Prussian war bc of the Belgium Document which showed French aggression

January 1866

pro- Augustenburg meeting in Holstein leads to declaration of war

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