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What is the general function of the cardiovascular system?

To pump blood through the body to deliver and get rid of nutrients.

How is the cardiovascular system organized?

Heart, to arteries, to veins, and back to the heart.


Exchange between arteries and veins.

Functions of blood

Distribute nutrients, respiratory gasses, hormones, and metabolic waste. regulate and protect

Why is matching blood types important?

To prevent antibodies from attacking.

bone marrow

Where blood cells are formed.

What are the two circuits of the
cardiovascular system?

Pulmonary and systemic

What does it mean to say that the
cardiovascular system is a closed system?

The heart is closed, the veins are closed the only exchange is in the capillaries.

What would happen if there was more blood pumped to the systemic circuit than the pulmonary

Pressure would build up in the systemic circuit and blood would back-up into the systemic tissue.

What surrounds the heart?

Pericardium wraps the outside, Lungs on either side, Sternum in front vertebrae column in back, and ribs.

What does double pump mean?

The heart pumps to the systemic and pulmonary by pumping left and right side.

Does the heart get it's nutrients from inside it's cambers?

No,the muscle is too thick

What are the two major parts of blood?

Plasma and "formed elements"

What is the most abundant formed element?

red blood cells, or erythrocytes

What are the two main components of plasma?

Plasma protein and water.


iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body

What is the stem cell from which red blood cells derives?

Myeloid stem cell

What hormone controls red blood cells production, and what organ does it come from?

Erythropoetin, the kidney

Where are red blood cells recycled?

Spleen and liver.

How much plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cells with plates, does blood have?

Plasma- 55%
RBC- 45%
WBC&P- 1%

What is the generalized function of leukocytes?

Fight disease.


Bacteria slayer


Immune response




Defense against parasites, and allergic reactions


Promotes inflammation

What is the most abundant to least abundant WBC.

Neutrophil, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophil, and Basophil. Never let monkeys eat bananas

What types of cells form platelets?


What is hemostasis?

Stoppage of blood flow

What happens in hemostasis?

Vascular spasm, platelet plug, and blood clotting


Used to form blood clots

3 Important nutrients for clotting

Fibrin, calcium, and vitamin K.

How important is the intrinsic conduction system?

Very, it coordinates the functions of the heart automatically.

Why is an ECG something that is used in routine clinical settings?

It can detect a problem in the intrinsic conduction system

Why is it important that the body can alter its cardiac output (CO)?

You need more blood in some cells at different times. ex: skeletal muscles during exercise.

Cardiac output

The amount of blood your heart pumps per minute

How do extrinsic mechanisms (nervous system) affect CO?

Your heart rate can be increased or decreased.

What is the pericardium & what is its function?

A thin layer that wraps the heart

What are the three layers of the heart wall?

Epicardium, Myocardium, and Endocardium

What layer of the heart is responsible for muscle contractions?


What is the name of the connective tissue around the great vessels of the
heart and valves?

Fibrous tissues

The path of blood from the superior & inferior vena cava through the full circuit of the
cardiovascular system.

Ivc/Svc to the RA through PSLV to PT to PA to lungs to PV to LA through BCV to LV through ASLV to aorta to body back to IVC/SVC

How is the left side of the heart different than the right?

The left side is thicker because it has to pump blood farther and against gravity

How does the heart receive blood?

Coronary circulation

What are the two types of cardiac muscle cells?

Contractile cardiac muscle fibers, and intrinsic conduction cells

How does the action potential in contractile cardiac muscle cells differ from that in skeletal muscle

Contractile has a plateau, skeletal muscle involves sodium and calcium

What generates the contractile
cardiac muscle cell action potential and how is it spread to adjoining cell?

A signal from the intrinsic conduction system, it spreads through gap junctions

What causes the plateau phase of the cardiac
contractile cell action potential?

Calcium entering the cell through slow calcium channels

What is the function and anatomy of the intrinsic conduction system?

To create an organized electrical signal through the heart, to start a contraction

What is considered your pacemaker?

SA node


A composite of all the electrical activity in the heart

P wave

Atria depolarize and contract

QRS complex

Ventricles depolarize and contract

What is the volume in the ventricle called at the end of ventricular diastole (just before systole)?

End diastolic volume

What is the volume in the ventricle called at the end of ventricular
systole (just before diastole)?

End systolic volume

How do we calculate CO?

Heart rate X Stroke volume

How does sympathetic input affect cardiac output?

Increase the Cardiac Output

What part of the brainstem controls autonomic input to the heart?

Medulla Oblongata

What nerves carry the parasympathetic input to the heart?


What is the most important factor controlling CO (cardiac output) in the normal, non-exercising

Venous return

What causes blood delivery?

The heart creates pressure gradients

How do blood flow and blood pressure relate?

If you increase one, then you will increase the other

What are the five classes of vessels?

elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules,

Which vessels are under the highest pressure?


What is the structure of the capillaries?

Thin walled and permeable

What is the vasa vasorum & why is it necessary?

The vessels of the vessels. They circulate nutrients into the vessels

Which part of the cardiovascular system is considered the volume reserve?


What is the function of valves in the venous system?

To prevent back flow

What are the 3 sources of resistance?

Blood viscosity, Vessel length, vessel diameter

What is systolic pressure?

Pressure from ventricular pressure

What is diastolic

Pressure from ventricular relaxation

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